This rich and magisterial work traces Palestine's millennia-old heritage, uncovering cultures and societies of astounding depth and complexity that stretch back to the very beginnings of recorded history. Starting with the earliest references in Egyptian and Assyrian texts, Nur Masalha explores how Palestine and its Palestinian identity have evolved over thousands of years, from the Bronze Age to the present day. Drawing on a rich body of sources and the latest archaeological evidence, Masalha shows how Palestine’s multicultural past has been distorted and mythologised by Biblical lore and the Israel–Palestinian conflict. In the process, Masalha reveals that the concept of Palestine, contrary to accepted belief, is not a modern invention or one constructed in opposition to Israel, but rooted firmly in ancient past. Palestine represents the authoritative account of the country's history.
The papers collected in this volume are a selection of papers presented at a conference on Language and Translation (Irbid, Jordan, 1992). In their revised form, they offer comparisons between Western and Arabic language usage and transfer. The articles bring together linguistic and cultural aspects in translation in a functional discourse framework set out in Part One: Theory, Culture, Ideology. Part Two addresses aspects for comparisons among translations and their cultural contexts (equivalence, stylistics and paragraphing). Part Three features Arabic-English language contact, specifically in technical writing, the media and academia. Part Four deals with problems in lexicography and grammar: terminology, verb-particle combinations and semantic diversity of radical-doubling forms and includes a proposal for a new approach to English/Arabic dictionaries. Part Five turns to issues of interest to language teachers with practical proposals and demonstrations. Part Six deals with geopolitical factors linking the West and Middle East, focusing on equality in communication and exchange of information.
Historians agree that Nazarenes or Al-Nassarah in Arabic, similar to Judaism, was a source for knowledge and religious thoughts for the Arabs of Hijaz. The Arab of Hijaz and specially Arab of Mecca had a tremendous knowledge in the Nazarene doctrines and sect and their opinion of Christs Birth, His message and His crucifixion. It was natural that such talks created a feedback in their knowledge, minds and dogma. The only religion known to the Quran is the religion of Moses (Moussa) and Jesus (Isa), as one religion that was carried by the Nazarenes. It is very important to remember that in history before Islam the term Nusrani and Nassarah, the Nazarenes never used to represent the Christians and Christianity wherever they lived throughout their history. The Nazarenes is the name confined to a sect of Beni Israel who believed in the coming of Christ, and deflected from the main streams of Christianity since the first Council of the Churches that took place in Jerusalem in 49 AD. Christians refer to them as the Shiites in relation to their Sunni Christianity, in faith and in dogma. With their presence in Mecca and Hijaz, the name Nazarene prevailed, as they had monopolized the Gospel. The best proof is the Raheb Gregarious Buheira of Basra Ash-sham who was labeled, in Al-Sira Al-Nabawiah, the caretaker of Isa on His religion, and to whom Waraka Bin Nofal belonged. Waraka Ben Nofal, the Bishop of Nazarenes in Mecca, was translating the Book and the Gospel of Mathews Hebrew in Aramaic to Arabic in the presence of Muhammad. Dr. Effarahs intention is to discuss in short that such important fact that deserves in depth study and research, especially the Quran never used the term Christianity and Christians. The only reference was to Jesus, as Isa Bin Mariam, and to the Nazarenes all the time. Therefore any translation from Arabic into English for the Holy Quran is misleading if Isa is considered a presentation for Jesus Christ, or any reference to the Nazarenes as Christians. The Holy Quran can be looked at as a continuous dialogue with the people of the Book from Jews and Nazarenes. The positions of testimony by the Nazarenes and their support to the Quranic call, and their affiliations to that mission, does not mean in the Quran, except the Nazarenes of Beni Israel due to the Qurans position, similar to their position, from the trinity and the divinity of Christ. The Arab Prophet direction is to follow the believers state of affairs Those are the ones to whom We have given the Book, along with Discretion and Prophet hood Such are the ones whom God has guided, so copy their guidance, as stated in Sura Al-Enaam, 6: verses 89-90. This book, What are the sacred roots of Islam, verifies how monotheism was spread in Arabia through the teaching of the Book and the Gospel through the Nazarenes Arab tribes who accepted the Prophet Mohammad as their leader and helped in setting the foundation for the Arab tribes in the Arabian Peninsula to unite and to spread out into an Islamic Empire. The current assumed Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) does not represent the true concept of the sacred roots of Islam that created the Islamic Empire in the past. Today, ISIL is nothing more than a group of terrorists hiding behind a form of Islam of their own brutal imagination. This book is written to those intellectuals who believe in the renewal, innovation and knowledge production that makes that make the contemporary Arab mentality open to global, psychological, social and human interactions and that Democracy is the solution and not Islam that ISIL is calling for by slaughtering humanity and its antiquities.
Beginning in 2010, there has been a consolidating cooperation among existing powers in the Euro-Mediterranean in face of the rapid de-stabilization of the Arab region. This fact alone accelerated the hesitant responses by the EU towards emerging hegemons, particularly Russia and China, who in-turn applied traditional mechanisms of increasing regional economic influence to bolster their political influence, but with the difference that a normative influence is missing, in contrast to the EU’s and US’ influence, which is strongly centered on universal norms pertaining to political, economic and social-cultural norms. This book examines the Arab Spring not only from its intra but also inter-regional geo-political and strategic implications by analyzing the Euro-Mediterranean region following the onset of the Arab Spring. It aims to connect the broader economic and political strands of power shifts that have taken place since the Arab Spring, making it of interests to political scientists and policy-makers concerned with the Mediterranean and Euro-Arab relations.
Presents over two hundred battles that changed the course of history, including the date, place, participants, and the historical significance of each conflict.
On the rugged battlefield of Yarmuk, the army of Byzantium, successor to the Roman Empire, confronted the new, dynamic power of the Muslim Arabs. This title not only looks at the battle itself but also the whole decisive Arab campaign - from the Muslim invasion of 633/4 to the fall of Byzantine Syria.
This guidebook covers Jordan, Syria and Lebanon in one portable volume. The whole region is full of interesting places for the visitor, from the famous Nabatean city ruins of Petra and natural wonders of Wadi Rum in Jordan, to the less visited ruins of Palmyra and formidable Crusader castle of Crac des Chevaliers in Syria. Lebanon is back on the tourist map and combines a different slice of Middle Eastern/Mediterranean life - luxury beach resorts, fashionable nightclubs, restaurants and skiing on Mount Lebanon - with a wealth of important historical sites.
Both Syria and Lebanon still labour under their media stereotypes as places of religious fanaticism, terrorism and intractable conflict. True, the region has had more than its fair share of wars, atrocities and suffering, and the Arab-Israeli conflict continues to cast its tragic shadow. Indeed, this is a conflict which goes right back to the dawn of history, resonating through the Old Testament stories of the origins of the Israelites, and the Exodus, when Moses led his people from exile in Egypt back to the Promised Land. But these same twists of religion, history and geography are also what makes this such a fascinating region to visit. Forget your preconceptions and go see for yourself; the day-to-day reality on the ground is a world away from the media stereotypes. Rather, you will find yourself stepping into a wonderful world of breathtakingly beautiful and well preserved historic monuments, stunning scenery, delicious food and diverse peoples.