In this, the only book available to combine both theoretical and practical aspects of x-ray diffraction, the authors emphasize a "hands on" approach through experiments and examples based on actual laboratory data. Part I presents the basics of x-ray diffraction and explains its use in obtaining structural and chemical information. In Part II, eight experimental modules enable the students to gain an appreciation for what information can be obtained by x-ray diffraction and how to interpret it. Examples from all classes of materials -- metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers -- are included. Diffraction patterns and Bragg angles are provided for students without diffractometers. 192 illustrations.
Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.
Computational Studies of Crystal Structure and Bonding, by Angelo Gavezzotti Cryo-Crystallography: Diffraction at Low Temperature and More, by Piero Macchi High-Pressure Crystallography, by Malcolm I. McMahon Chemical X-Ray Photodiffraction: Principles, Examples, and Perspectives, by Panče Naumov Powder Diffraction Crystallography of Molecular Solids, by Kenneth D. M. Harris
The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.
Starting with the history of the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen and the subsequent formalization of diffraction laws by Von Laue, Bragg and others, it covers the essential fundamentals of crystallography and the theory of X-ray generation and of the interaction of X-rays with matter. X-ray diffraction theory is covered in detail, serving as an excellent background to the following chapters the application procedures such as the laue, the rotating crystal and the powder techniques. Reciprocal lattice theory is introduced with the necessary vector algebra and the relationship between reciprocal lattice and diffraction, which the student has generally some difficulty in understanding in the beginning, has been brought out elegantly. The chapters on film techniques are followed by one on the X-ray diffractometer and its applications. Specific applications such as crystal structure determination, accurate determination of lattice parameters, single crystal studies, studies of crystallographic texture, stress measurement, order-disorder transformation, phase diagram determination are covered in sufficient detail in the next chapters. There is a final chapter on the use of X-ray diffraction in chemical analysis. The list of topics covered is quite comprehensive. The treatment of topics in each chapter is sufficiently exhaustive for undergraduate and graduate courses in X-ray diffraction, not only for metallurgists and materials scientists/engineers, but also for other disciplines requiring the study of X-ray diffraction. The book is very well-written and the examples, solved and unsolved, at the end of various chapters will benefit the students greatly in understanding the concepts underlying them
Exploration of fundamentals of x-ray diffraction theory using Fourier transforms applies general results to various atomic structures, amorphous bodies, crystals, and imperfect crystals. 154 illustrations. 1963 edition.
This book explores novel methods for implementing X-ray diffraction technology as an imaging modality, which have been made possible through recent breakthroughs in detector technology, computational power, and data processing algorithms. The ability to perform fast, spatially-resolved X-ray diffraction throughout the volume of a sample opens up entirely new possibilities in areas such as material analysis, cancer diagnosis, and explosive detection, thus offering the potential to revolutionize the fields of medical, security, and industrial imaging and detection. Featuring chapters written by an international selection of authors from both academia and industry, the book provides a comprehensive discussion of the underlying physics, architectures, and applications of X-ray diffraction imaging that is accessible and relevant to neophytes and experts alike. Teaches novel methods for X-ray diffraction imaging Comprehensive and self-contained discussion of the relevant physics, imaging techniques, system components, and data processing algorithms Features state-of-the-art work of international authors from both academia and industry. Includes practical applications in the medical, industrial, and security sectors
The year 2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century, the discovery of X-ray diffraction (March 1912, by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping) and of Bragg's law (November 1912). The discovery of X-ray diffraction confirmed the wave nature of X-rays and the space-lattice hypothesis. It had two major consequences: the analysis of the structure of atoms, and the determination of the atomic structure of materials. This had a momentous impact in chemistry, physics, mineralogy, material science, biology and X-ray spectroscopy. The book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined by William Bragg and his son Lawrence, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography in chemistry, mineralogy, materials science, physics, biological sciences and X-ray spectroscopy. It also tells how the concept of space lattice developed since ancient times up to the nineteenth century, and how our conception of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details. This thoroughly researched account on the multiple faces of a scientific specialty, X-ray crystallography, is aimed both at the scientists, who rarely subject the historical material of past discoveries in their field to particular scrutiny with regard to the historical details and at the historians of science who often lack the required expert knowledge to scrutinize the involved technical content in sufficient depth (M. Eckert - Metascience).
X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.
A useful reference work for graduate students, lecturers and researchers, this text provides an introduction on the subject of dynamic theory of x-ray diffraction, followed by a detailed treatment of perfect and slightly and highly deformed crystals.
An important milestone in the history of science, the diffraction of X-rays, was observed by Max von Laue in 1912. In the last 100 years, X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have revealed highly valuable information about many ordered atomic structures seen in a variety of common materials. The understanding of material structures opened the door to the reliable application of these materials and allowed scientific discussions about material properties and structural features to become possible. Besides playing this crucial role in history, XRD has now also successfully transformed itself into a method in the forefront of extending much of our knowledge boundaries. Written by more than 30 X-ray diffraction experts from 9 countries/regions, this book consists of 11 chapters examining the development of the XRD technique and demonstrating various new opportunities for its application. Each chapter discusses timely and important subjects surrounding the XRD technique, including the past and future of the single-crystal XRD technique and new explorations with co-ordination polymers; the very successful implementation of Rietveld refinement analysis for alloys, intermetallics, cements, and ceramics; the application of XRD in nanoparticles structure study; the methodological developments in quantifying the state of residual stress in materials; and the state-of-the-art progress in combining XRD principles with electron crystallography for structure determination.
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primers series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. Learning features provided in the primers, including questions at the end of every chapter and interactive online MCQs, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. This primer provides a succinct account of the technique of X-ray crystallography for determining structure in the solid state. Engaging examples of practical applications are described throughout, emphasising the importance of this field to modern research and industry. Furthermore, end of chapter exercises and online multiple choice questions enable students to test their own understanding of the subject. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany X-Ray Crystallography features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
High-resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering is a key tool for structure analysis not only in bulk materials but also at surfaces and buried interfaces from the sub-nanometer range to micrometers. This book offers an overview of diffraction and scattering methods currently available at modern synchrotron sources and illustrates bulk and interface investigations of solid and liquid matter with up-to-date research examples. It presents important characteristics of the sources, experimental set-up, and new detector developments. The book also considers future exploitation of x-ray free electron lasers for diffraction applications.
Designed for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of physics, materials science and metallurgical engineering, this text explains the theory of X-ray diffraction starting from diffraction by an electron to that by an atom, a crystal, and finally ending with a diffraction by a conglomerate of atoms either in the single crystal or in the polycrystal stage. This Second Edition of the book includes a new chapter on Electron Diffraction as electron diffraction along with X-ray diffraction are complementary to each other and are also included in the curriculum. The book amply blends the theory with major applications of X-ray diffraction, including those of direct analysis of lattice defects by X-ray topography, orientation texture analysis, chemical analysis by diffraction as well as by fluorescence. KEY FEATURES : Set of numerical problems along with solutions Details of some different experimental techniques Unsolved problems and Review Questions to grasp the concepts.
X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.
Designed for Junior/Senior undergraduate courses. This revision of a classical text is intended to acquaint the reader, who has no prior knowledge of the subject, with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. The text is a collection of principles and methods designed directly for the student and not a reference tool for the advanced reader
This book presents a physical approach to the diffraction phenomenon and its applications in materials science. An historical background to the discovery of X-ray diffraction is first outlined. Next, Part 1 gives a description of the physical phenomenon of X-ray diffraction on perfect and imperfect crystals. Part 2 then provides a detailed analysis of the instruments used for the characterization of powdered materials or thin films. The description of the processing of measured signals and their results is also covered, as are recent developments relating to quantitative microstructural analysis of powders or epitaxial thin films on the basis of X-ray diffraction. Given the comprehensive coverage offered by this title, anyone involved in the field of X-ray diffraction and its applications will find this of great use.
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as graduate-level students in these areas.
This classic by one of the great figures in x-ray structure analysis provides a vigorous mathematical treatment of its subject. Addresses such fundamentals as crystal faces and edges, the lattice postulate, lattice rows and panes, as well as point, translation,and space groups. 1945 edition.