Transitional Justice from Below

Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change

Transitional Justice from Below

Although relatively new as a distinct field of study, transitional justice has become rapidly established as a vital field of enquiry. From vaguely exotic origins on the outer edges of political science, the study of 'justice' in times of transition has emerged as a central concern of scholarship and practical policy-making. A process of institutionalisation has confirmed this importance. The ICTY, the ICTR, the ICC, hybrid tribunals in Sierra Leone and East Timor and 'local' processes such as the Iraqi Higher Tribunal (IHT) have energised international law and international criminal justice scholarship. The South African TRC was for a time lauded as the model for dealing with the past and remains one of the most researched institutions in the world. It is one of approximately two dozen such institutions established in different transitional contexts over the past twenty years to assist conflicted societies to come to terms with a violent past. At the national level, international donors contribute huge sums of money to 'Rule of Law' programmes designed to transform national justice systems. This collection seeks to offer something quite different to the mainstream of scholarship in this area, emphasising the need for bespoke solutions to different transitions rather than 'off the shelf' models. The collection is designed to offer a space for diversity, prompted by a series of perspectives "from below" of societies beset by past violent conflict which have sought to effect their transition to justice. In doing so the contributors have also sought to enrich discussion about the role of human rights in transition, the continuing usefulness of perspectives from above, and the still contested meanings of "transition".

Transitional Justice and Corporate Accountability from Below

Deploying Archimedes' Lever

Transitional Justice and Corporate Accountability from Below

Examines when, where, why, and how corporate accountability for past human rights violations in armed conflicts and authoritarian regimes is possible.

Transitional Justice Theories

Transitional Justice Theories

Transitional Justice Theories is the first volume to approach the politically sensitive subject of post-conflict or post-authoritarian justice from a theoretical perspective. It combines contributions from distinguished scholars and practitioners as well as from emerging academics from different disciplines and provides an overview of conceptual approaches to the field. The volume seeks to refine our understanding of transitional justice by exploring often unarticulated assumptions that guide discourse and practice. To this end, it offers a wide selection of approaches from various theoretical traditions ranging from normative theory to critical theory. In their individual chapters, the authors explore the concept of transitional justice itself and its foundations, such as reconciliation, memory, and truth, as well as intersections, such as reparations, peace building, and norm compliance. This book will be of particular interest for scholars and students of law, peace and conflict studies, and human rights studies. Even though highly theoretical, the chapters provide an easy read for a wide audience including readers not familiar with theoretical investigations.

Women and Transitional Justice

The Experience of Women as Participants

Women and Transitional Justice

This book discusses the evolving principle of transitional justice in public international law and international relations from the female perspective at a time when the concept is increasingly recognised by the international community as an effective framework in which to negotiate and manage a community’s post-conflict transition to peace and stability. The book adopts a gender lens with a particular focus on women’s direct experiences and perceptions either as intended beneficiaries of transitional justice (TJ), protagonists in that process or as practitioners, in order to present a unique view in relation to the development of TJ. The range of experiences and knowledge in this collection provides a fresh and unique perspective through its blend of theory and practice. This book will be of particular interest to students and scholars of law, political science and gender studies.

Globalization, Police Reform and Development

Doing it the Western Way?

Globalization, Police Reform and Development

This volume presents a unique examination of Western-led police reform efforts by theoretically linking neoliberal globalization, police reform and development. The authors present seven country case studies based on this theoretical and conceptual approach and assess the prospects for successful police reform in a global context.

Resistance and Transitional Justice

Resistance and Transitional Justice

Despite a more reflective concern over the past 20 years with marginalised voices, justice from below, power relations and the legitimacy of mechanisms and processes, scholarship on transitional justice has remained relatively silent on the question of ‘resistance’. In response, this book asks what can be learnt by engaging with resistance to transitional justice not just as a problem of process, but as a necessary element of transitional justice. Drawing on literatures about resistance from geography and anthropology, it is the social act of labelling resistance, along with its subjective nature, that is addressed here as part of the political, economic, social and cultural contexts in which transitional justice processes unfold. Working through three cases – Côte d’Ivoire, Burundi and Cambodia – each chapter of the book addresses a different form or meaning of resistance, from the vantage point of multiple actors. As such, each chapter adds a different element to an overall argument that disrupts the norm/deviancy dichotomy that has so far characterised the limited work on resistance and transitional justice. Together, the chapters of the book develop cross-cutting themes that elaborate an overall argument for considering resistance to transitional justice as a subjective element of a political process, rather than as a problem of implementation.

Restorative Justice in Transition

Restorative Justice in Transition

This book explores how restorative justice is used and what its potential benefits are in situations where the state has been either explicitly or implicitly involved in human rights abuses. Restorative justice is increasingly becoming a popular mechanism to respond to crime in democratic settings and while there is a burgeoning literature on these contexts, there is less information that focuses explicitly on its use in nations that have experienced protracted periods of conflict and oppression. This book interrogates both macro and micro utilisations of restorative justice, including truth commissions, criminal justice reform and the development of initiatives by communities and other non-state actors. The central premise is that the primary potential of restorative justice in responding to international crime should be viewed in terms of the lessons that it provides for problem-solving, rather than its traditional role as a mechanism or process to respond to conflict. Four values are put forward that should frame any restorative approach – engagement, empowerment, reintegration and transformation. It is thought that these values provide enough space for local actors to devise their own culturally relevant processes to achieve longstanding peace. This book will be of interest to those conducting research in the fields of restorative justice, transitional justice as well as criminology in general.

Borders and Crime

Pre-Crime, Mobility and Serious Harm in an Age of Globalization

Borders and Crime

The collection considers the growing importance of the border as a prime site for criminal justice activity and explores the impact of border policing on human rights and global justice. It covers a range of subjects from e-trafficking, child soldiers, the 'global war on terror' in Africa and police activities that generate crime.

Justice for Victims

Perspectives on rights, transition and reconciliation

Justice for Victims

Justice for Victims brings together the world’s leading scholars in the fields of study surrounding victimization in a pioneering international collection. This book focuses on the current study of victims of crime, combining both legal and social-scientific perspectives, articulating both in new directions and questioning whether victims really do have more rights in our modern world. This book offers an interdisciplinary approach, covering large-scale (political) victimization, terrorist victimization, sexual victimization and routine victimization. Split into three sections, this book provides in-depth coverage of: victims' rights, transitional justice and victims' perspectives, and trauma, resilience and justice. Victims' rights are conceptualised in the human rights framework and discussed in relation to supranational, international and regional policies. The transitional justice section covers victims of war from those caught between peace and justice, as well as post-conflict justice. The final section focuses on post-traumatic stress, connecting psychological and anthropological perceptions in analysing collective violence, mass victimization and trauma. This book addresses challenging and new issues in the field of victimology and the study of transitional and restorative justice. As such, it will be of interest to researchers, practitioners and students interested in the fields of victimology, transitional justice, restorative justice and trauma work.

Civil Society and Transitions in the Western Balkans

Civil Society and Transitions in the Western Balkans

This book explores the ambiguous role played by civil society in the processes of state-building, democratization and post-conflict reconstruction in the Western Balkans challenging the assumption that civil society is always a force for good by analysing civil society actors and their effects in post-communist and post-conflict transition.