This book synthesizes a decade of research by the author into the fundamental issues in organization design and presents it in the form of a new perspective - known as the micro-structural perspective.The micro-structural approach to organization design aims to both expand and narrow current thinking. It takes an expansive view on the kinds of phenomena that can be studied in terms of organization design: besides traditional topics like inter-divisional collaboration, subsidiary-headquarterrelationships, and re-organizations, this approach has also been used to fruitfully analyse cross-functional teams, strategic partnerships, buyer-supplier relations, alliance networks, mega-projects, post-merger integration, business groups, open source communities, and crowdsourcing. At the same time, the micro-structural approach narrows our focus by abstracting away from the variety and complexity of organizations to a few fundamental and universal problems of organizing (that relate to how they aggregate their members' efforts), as well as a few reusable building blocks,called micro-structures (which capture common patterns of interaction between members of an organization). The complexity and variety of organization designs, this approach claims, can be understood in terms of these simpler elements. The author provides concepts, tools, and methodologies for this new perspective. The book will be of interest to researchers and PhD students in management, organization science, and strategy.
The foreign exchange market microstructures in developing and transition economies are characterized by the results from the IMF''s 2001 Survey on Foreign Exchange Market Organization. The survey found that these markets are usually unified onshore spot markets for U.S. dollars, where transactions are concentrated at the bank-customer level. The trading mechanisms are usually dealer or mixed dealer/auction markets; the degree of transparency is often low; settlement systems remain risky; and the scope for price discovery is variable.
Professor Spulber demonstrates how the intermediation theory of the firm explains firm formation by showing why firms arise in a market equilibrium with costly transactions. In addition, the theory helps explain how markets work by.
This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
Given the strong current attention of orthopaedic, biomechanical, and biomedical engineering research on translational capabilities for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of clinical disease states, the need for reviews of the state-of-art and current needs in orthopaedics is very timely. Orthopaedic Biomechanics provides an in-depth review of the current knowledge of orthopaedic biomechanics across all tissues in the musculoskeletal system, at all size scales, and with direct relevance to engineering and clinical applications. Discussing the relationship between mechanical loading, function, and biological performance, it first reviews basic structure-function relationships for most major orthopedic tissue types followed by the most-relevant structures of the body. It then addresses multiscale modeling and biologic considerations. It concludes with a look at applications of biomechanics, focusing on recent advances in theory, technology and applied engineering approaches. With contributions from leaders in the field, the book presents state-of-the-art findings, techniques, and perspectives. Much of orthopaedic, biomechanical, and biomedical engineering research is directed at the translational capabilities for the "real world". Addressing this from the perspective of diagnostics, prevention, and treatment in orthopaedic biomechanics, the book supplies novel perspectives for the interdisciplinary approaches required to translate orthopaedic biomechanics to today’s real world.
Causal explanations are essential for theory building. In focusing on causal mechanisms rather than descriptive effects, the goal of this volume is to increase our theoretical understanding of the way gender operates in interaction. Theoretical analyses of gender's effects in interaction, in turn, are necessary to understand how such effects might be implicated with individual-level and social structural-level processes in the larger system of gender inequality. Despite other differences, the contributors to this book all take what might be loosely called a "microstructural" approach to gender and interaction. All agree that individuals come to interaction with certain common, socially created beliefs, cultural meanings, experiences, and social rules. These include stereotypes about gendered activities and skills, beliefs about the status value of gender, rules for interacting in certain settings, and so on. However, as individuals apply these beliefs and rules to the specific contingent events of interaction, they combine and reshape their implications in distinctive ways that are particular to the encounter. As a result, individuals actively construct their social relations in the encounter through their interaction. The patterns of relations that develop are not completely determined or scripted in advance by the beliefs and rules of the larger society. Consequently, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between constructed patterns of interaction and larger social structural forms. The constructed patterns of social relations among a set of interactants can be thought of as micro-level social structures or, more simply, "microstructures.
An authoritative reference that contains the most up-to-date information knowledge, approaches, and applications of lipid crystals Crystallization of Lipids is a comprehensive resource that offers the most current and emerging knowledge, techniques and applications of lipid crystals. With contributions from noted experts in the field, the text covers the basic research of polymorphic structures, molecular interactions, nucleation and crystal growth and crystal network formation of lipid crystals which comprise main functional materials employed in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The authors highlight trans-fat alternative and saturated-fat reduction technology to lipid crystallization. These two issues are the most significant challenges in the edible-application technology of lipids, and a key solution is lipid crystallization. The text focuses on the crystallization processes of lipids under various external influences of thermal fluctuation, ultrasound irradiation, shear, emulsification and additives. Designed to be practical, the book’s information can be applied to realistic applications of lipids to foods, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals. This authoritative and up-to-date guide: Highlights cutting-edge research tools designed to help analyse lipid crystallization with the most current and the conventional techniques Offers a thorough review of the information, techniques and applications of lipid crystals Includes contributions from noted experts in the field of lipid crystals Presents cutting-edge information on the topics of trans-fat alterative and saturated-fat reduction technology Written for research and development technologists as well as academics, this important resource contains research on lipid crystals which comprise the main functional materials employed in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.
As one of the results of an ambitious project, this handbook provides a well-structured directory of globally available software tools in the area of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME). The compilation covers models, software tools, and numerical methods allowing describing electronic, atomistic, and mesoscopic phenomena, which in their combination determine the microstructure and the properties of materials. It reaches out to simulations of component manufacture comprising primary shaping, forming, joining, coating, heat treatment, and machining processes. Models and tools addressing the in-service behavior like fatigue, corrosion, and eventually recycling complete the compilation. An introductory overview is provided for each of these different modelling areas highlighting the relevant phenomena and also discussing the current state for the different simulation approaches. A must-have for researchers, application engineers, and simulation software providers seeking a holistic overview about the current state of the art in a huge variety of modelling topics. This handbook equally serves as a reference manual for academic and commercial software developers and providers, for industrial users of simulation software, and for decision makers seeking to optimize their production by simulations. In view of its sound introductions into the different fields of materials physics, materials chemistry, materials engineering and materials processing it also serves as a tutorial for students in the emerging discipline of ICME, which requires a broad view on things and at least a basic education in adjacent fields.
A comprehensive guide to the dynamic area of finance known asmarket microstructure Interest in market microstructure has grown dramatically inrecent years due largely in part to the rapid transformation of thefinancial market environment by technology, regulation, andglobalization. Looking at market transactions at the most granularlevel—and taking into account market structure, pricediscovery, information flows, transaction costs, and the tradingprocess—market microstructure also forms the basis ofhigh-frequency trading strategies that can help professionalinvestors generate profits and/or execute optimal transactions. Part of the Robert W. Kolb Series in Finance, MarketMicrostructure skillfully puts this discipline in perspectiveand examines how the working processes of markets impacttransaction costs, prices, quotes, volume, and trading behavior.Along the way, it offers valuable insights on how specific featuresof the trading process like the existence of intermediaries or theenvironment in which trading takes place affect the price formationprocess. Explore issues including market structure and design,transaction costs, information flows, and disclosure Addresses market microstructure in emerging markets Covers the legal and regulatory issues impacting this area offinance Contains contributions from both experienced financialprofessionals and respected academics in this field If you're looking to gain a firm understanding of marketmicrostructure, this book is the best place to start.
This volume presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. In this book the Cnidarians are traced from the Earth’s primordial oceans, to their response to the warming and acidifying oceans. Due to the role of corals in the carbon and calcium cycles, various aspects of cnidarian calcification are discussed. The relation of the Cnidaria with Mankind is approached, in accordance with the Editors’ philosophy of bridging the artificial schism between science, arts and Humanities. Cnidarians' encounters with humans result in a broad spectrum of medical emergencies that are reviewed. The final section of the volume is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art.
During the last decade, the prominent approach in organization theory has moved from an emphasis on adaptive change in organizations to an increasingly influential selection approach to studying organizational change. This volume addresses organizational evolution by examining the process of continual change within organizations, including founding, disbanding, growth and change. Drawn from a broad theoretical base, the chapters provide the most current evolutionary thinking about organizations from a variety of fields.
Blood and the Covenant tells the story of a mindsetthe conception of a personal covenant between God and manand the insidious consequences of this mindset. Author Pierre Parisien examines the history of covenantal belief and looks critically at two of its most troubling aspects: appropriation (the Promised Land) and moral dispensation (the belief that if you are doing it for God, then it is not a sin but a virtuous act). Parisien traces the historical consequences of the contract with God, from the campaigns of Joshua in Canaan to the present manifestations of ideological Zionism. He argues that the course of history has been, in great part, a consequence of the original Covenant, and he charts the regrettable lineage of atrocities committed under the auspices of covenant fulfillmentincluding the conquest of Canaan to the hegemony of Rome, the rape of Northern India by the Muslim Sultans, the Crusades, European colonialism (which considered the entire planet as the Promised Land), Manifest Destiny, and ideological Zionism. Wars, crimes against humanity, and genocide have too often been the aftermath of the Covenant. Will this woeful progression ever come to an end?
Large organizations, particularly corporations, possess considerable resources, and with that comes considerable power, often extending beyond a single community or nation-state. Networks among large corporations enhance that power to the point that they exert a major impact on national and multinational economies and policies, influencing decision-making to achieve their own goals. Networks of Power applies interorganizational analysis to the study of power in three main areas: national policy domains, community influence structures, and national corporate structures. The main body of the text is comprised of original research by the leading authorities in the field and covers such areas as national policy decisions in health and energy, corporate structure, innovative theoretical and methodological approaches, and a critical review of network analysis of interorganizational relations and power. Also presented is an agenda for future research.
In the last few years, the quantity of books and papers on the political, economic and legal problems of the exploration and use of the sea and marine resources has considerably increased. But the status and activities of intern a tional organizations related to maritime shipping, fisheries, scientific research in the World Ocean and the protection of the marine environment have not yet, as a whole, been represented in the scientific and reference literature. It would be fair, though, to mention that some general information on marine international organizations may be found in the Yearbook of International Organizations, Brussels, 1979; in Annotated Acronyms and Abbreviations of Marine Science Related International Organizations, U. S. Department of Commerce, 1976; and in the UN Annotated Directory ofIntergovernmental Organizations Concerned with Ocean Affairs, 1976. Voluminous informa tion on organizations engaged in problems of the exploration and use ofthe sea is given in International Marine Organizations by the well-known Polish scientists Lopuski and Symonides, 1978. Meanwhile the increasing volume of practical work related to the participa tion of governmental and scientific bodies as well as individual scientists and specialists in these organizations, the necessity of long-term planning in this field, and the perspectives of the development of these organizations, make necessary a special publication depicting the structure and many-sided activi ties of such international bodies. This book is the first one in which the most complete information on the main marine international organizations is presented.
Integrating nano and microphysical effects, this book’s team of expert authors offers new insights into self-organized structure formation in nanomaterials. A major question addressed in this book is the role of spatial and temporal order. In particular, you’ll discover how to apply concepts developed on macroscopic and microscopic scales to structure formation occurring on nanoscales, a key focus of interest at the frontiers of science.
Materials Technology in Steam Reforming Processes is a collection of papers that covers advancement in the various areas of studies in steam reforming processes. The title presents the studies of authors who are involved in the development of a particular process. The coverage of the text includes the fundamental aspects of the creep deformation of metals; factors affecting choice of materials and design of units for pressure steam reforming; and the research background of the thermalloy grades of chromium-nickel-iron heat-resisting alloys. The selection also covers corrosion problems on finned air-cooled heat exchanger tubing; and thermal insulation for steam-reforming plants. The book will be of great use to scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in materials science.
Despite the strictures of the extreme Behaviourists, psychologists have been taking an increasing interest in the development of theories concerning the 'mechanisms' internal to humans and animals which permit perceptual, memory, and problem solving behaviour. One consideration which has enormously stimulated an interest in theories of internal cognitive represen tation has been progress in the theory and the technology of computing machines, which has opened the promising prospect of computer simulation of human and animal psychological functions. What has developed is the possibility of constructing models of human psychology, realizing them in computer hardware, and testing the resultant machine performance against that of the human subject. A second consideration which helps motivate the construction of models of internal representation is the considerable advances in experimental and theoretical knowledge of the human brain understood from the neuro-anatomical view. The likely profit of adopting a narrowly Behaviourist methodology shrinks in the face of our growing, fine-grained knowledge of cerebral 'wetware'. The purpose of this volume is selectively to exhibit some of the proposals concerning theories of internal representation which have been put forward in recent years. The area of central concern is the resurgence of interest in the role of imagery in cognition which has taken place in the last fifteen years.