The Microstructure of Organizations

The Microstructure of Organizations

This book synthesizes a decade of research by the author into the fundamental issues in organization design and presents it in the form of a new perspective - known as the micro-structural perspective.The micro-structural approach to organization design aims to both expand and narrow current thinking. It takes an expansive view on the kinds of phenomena that can be studied in terms of organization design: besides traditional topics like inter-divisional collaboration, subsidiary-headquarterrelationships, and re-organizations, this approach has also been used to fruitfully analyse cross-functional teams, strategic partnerships, buyer-supplier relations, alliance networks, mega-projects, post-merger integration, business groups, open source communities, and crowdsourcing. At the same time, the micro-structural approach narrows our focus by abstracting away from the variety and complexity of organizations to a few fundamental and universal problems of organizing (that relate to how they aggregate their members' efforts), as well as a few reusable building blocks,called micro-structures (which capture common patterns of interaction between members of an organization). The complexity and variety of organization designs, this approach claims, can be understood in terms of these simpler elements. The author provides concepts, tools, and methodologies for this new perspective. The book will be of interest to researchers and PhD students in management, organization science, and strategy.

The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets

The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets

The foreign exchange market is the largest, fastest-growing financial market in the world. Yet conventional macroeconomic approaches do not explain why people trade foreign exchange. At the same time, they fail to explain the short-run determinants of the exchange rate. These nine innovative essays use a microstructure approach to analyze the workings of the foreign exchange market, with special emphasis on institutional aspects and the actual behavior of market participants. They examine the volume of transactions, heterogeneity of traders, the time of day and location of trading, the bid-ask spread, and the high level of exchange rate volatility that has puzzled many observers. They also consider the structure of the market, including such issues as nontransparency, asymmetric information, liquidity trading, the use of automated brokers, the relationship between spot and derivative markets, and the importance of systemic risk in the market. This timely volume will be essential reading for anyone interested in the economics of international finance.

Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods

Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods

It is widely accepted that the creation of novel foods or improvement of existing foods largely depends on a strong understanding and awareness of the intricate interrelationship between the nanoscopic, microscopic and macroscopic features of foods and their bulk physiochemical properties, sensory attributes and healthfulness. With its distinguished editor and array of international contributors, Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods provides a review of current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control. Part one focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as polysaccharides, proteins and fats and the forces which hold them together. Part two discusses novel analytical techniques which can provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials. Chapters cover atomic force microscopy, image analysis, scattering techniques and computer analysis. Chapters in part three examine how the principles of structural design can be employed to improve performance and functionality of foods. The final part of the book discusses how knowledge of structural and physicochemical properties can be implemented to improve properties of specific foods such as ice-cream, spreads, protein-based drinks, chocolate and bread dough. Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods is an essential reference for industry professionals and scientists concerned with improving the performance of existing food products and inventing novel food products. Reviews the current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control Focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as proteins and fats and the forces that hold them together Discusses novel analytical techniques that provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials

The Microstructure of the Foreign-exchange Market

A Selective Survey of the Literature

The Microstructure of the Foreign-exchange Market

This study reviews the recent and growing literature on foreign-exchange-market microstructure. It surveys, in particular, research concerned with the links between information flows, the heterogeneity of agents' expectations, and the implications of such heterogeneity for trading volume and exchange-rate volatility. The study starts with a description of the institutional setting of the foreign-exchange market. It then gives an overview of the work on foreign-exchange-market survey-data sets and order flow, as well as discussing the literature on chartist, or technical, analysis in the foreign-exchange market. Finally, it examines recent research on modeling time-varying volatility in the foreign-exchange market, on the interactions between volatility, trading volumes, and bid-ask spreads, on spread determination, and on market makers' behavior.

Foreign Exchange Market Organization in Selected Developing and Transition Economies

Evidence From a Survey

Foreign Exchange Market Organization in Selected Developing and Transition Economies

The foreign exchange market microstructures in developing and transition economies are characterized by the results from the IMF''s 2001 Survey on Foreign Exchange Market Organization. The survey found that these markets are usually unified onshore spot markets for U.S. dollars, where transactions are concentrated at the bank-customer level. The trading mechanisms are usually dealer or mixed dealer/auction markets; the degree of transparency is often low; settlement systems remain risky; and the scope for price discovery is variable.

Multi-Functional Materials and Structures II

Multi-Functional Materials and Structures II

With the rapid development of science and technology, the functionalization of structural materials, and the structurization of functional materials are attracting increasing attention in the scientific and engineering fields. The development of multi-functional materials and structures (MFMS), at the micro- and nano-scale levels, has grown rapidly due to the requirement of increasing safety margins for all infrastructure, biomedical and engineering elements. Multi-functional material systems are capable of performing multiple “primary” functions, simultaneously or sequentially in time, and are specially designed to improve system performance via a reduction in the redundancy between sub-system materials and functions.

Gender, Interaction, and Inequality

Gender, Interaction, and Inequality

Causal explanations are essential for theory building. In focusing on causal mechanisms rather than descriptive effects, the goal of this volume is to increase our theoretical understanding of the way gender operates in interaction. Theoretical analyses of gender's effects in interaction, in turn, are necessary to understand how such effects might be implicated with individual-level and social structural-level processes in the larger system of gender inequality. Despite other differences, the contributors to this book all take what might be loosely called a "microstructural" approach to gender and interaction. All agree that individuals come to interaction with certain common, socially created beliefs, cultural meanings, experiences, and social rules. These include stereotypes about gendered activities and skills, beliefs about the status value of gender, rules for interacting in certain settings, and so on. However, as individuals apply these beliefs and rules to the specific contingent events of interaction, they combine and reshape their implications in distinctive ways that are particular to the encounter. As a result, individuals actively construct their social relations in the encounter through their interaction. The patterns of relations that develop are not completely determined or scripted in advance by the beliefs and rules of the larger society. Consequently, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between constructed patterns of interaction and larger social structural forms. The constructed patterns of social relations among a set of interactants can be thought of as micro-level social structures or, more simply, "microstructures.

Applied Science, Materials Science and Information Technologies in Industry

Applied Science, Materials Science and Information Technologies in Industry

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2014 International Conference on Advances in Materials Science and Information Technologies in Industry (AMSITI 2014), January 11-12, 2014, Xi’an, China. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The 1030 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Materials Science and Processing Technologies; Chapter 2: Information Technologies and Information Processing Algorithms; Chapter 3: Applied Sciences and Engineering Researches

Functional Materials Research II

Functional Materials Research II

Selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2016 China Functional Material Technology and Industry Forum, July, 25-28, 2016, Chongqing, China

Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the Third International Conference on Applied Mechanics, Materials and Manufacturing (ICAMMM 2013), August 24-25, 2013, Dalian, China. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The 587 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Composites; Chapter 2: Micro/Nano Materials; Chapter 3: Iron, Steel, Metals and Metal Alloys; Chapter 4: Polymer; Chapter 5: Biological Materials and Technologies; Chapter 6: Optical Materials and Engineering; Chapter 7: Chemical Engineering; Chapter 8: Mineral Mining and Processing; Chapter 9: Materials Processing Technology; Chapter 10: Building Materials; Chapter 11: Construction Technologies; Chapter 12: Environmental Engineering and Land Planning; Chapter 13: The Basic of Mechanics and Research Methods; Chapter 14: Dynamics, Vibration and Noise; Chapter 15: Solid Mechanics; Chapter 16: Fluid Mechanics; Chapter 17: Biomechanics; Chapter 18: Product Design and Innovative Design Methodology; Chapter 19: Design of Machinery and Mechanisms; Chapter 20: Industrial Engineering and Production Operations Management; Chapter 21: Sensor Technology; Chapter 22: Technologies of Measuring, Testing and Monitoring, Data and Signal Processing; Chapter 23: Electronic Engineering, Embedded System and Information Technologies; Chapter 24: Mechatronics, Robotics and Control, Automation of Manufacture; Chapter 25: Engineering Education; Chapter 26: Related Themes.