This book examines the post-Cold War challenges facing Antarctic governance. It seeks to understand the interests of new players in Antarctic affairs such as China, India, Korea and Malaysia, and how other key players such as Russia and the USA or claimant states such as New Zealand or France are coping in the new global order. Antarctica is the world's fifth largest continent and its territories are claimed by seven different states. Since 1961 Antarctica has been managed under the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), a regime which, according to its critics, by the terms of its membership effectively excludes most of the nations of the world. This book examines the post-Cold War challenges facing Antarctic governance, and is organized thematically into three sections: Part 1 considers the role of Antarctic politics in the current post-Cold War, post-colonial era and the impact this new political environment is having on the ATS. Part 2 looks at the competing foreign policy objectives of a representative range of countries with Antarctic activities. Part 3 examines issues that have the potential to destabilise the order of the Antarctic Treaty System, such as unrestricted tourism and new advances in science and technology. The Emerging Politics of Antarctica will be of interest to students and scholars of international politics, polar studies and foreign policy studies.
The Antarctic and Southern Ocean are hotspots for contemporary endeavours to oversee 'the last frontier' of the Earth. The Handbook on the Politics of Antarctica offers a wide-ranging and comprehensive overview of the governance, geopolitics, international law, cultural studies and history of the region. Four thematic sections take readers from the earliest human encounters to contemporary resource exploitation and climate change. Written by leading experts, the Handbook brings together the very best interdisciplinary social science and humanities scholarship on the Antarctic and Southern Ocean.
The thawing Antarctic continent offers living space and marine and mineral resources that were previously inaccessible. This book discusses how revisiting the Antarctic Treaty System and dividing up the continent preemptively could spare the world serious conflict. • Argues that the Antarctic Treaty, which was opened for signature in 1959, needs to be reconsidered since pressure continues to build for the occupation of the continent and the exploitation of its living and non-living resources • Suggests that international conflict over Antarctica is likely in the coming decades, particularly because the ban on mineral resources is up for revision in 2048 • Argues that policymakers need to draw lessons from the economic competition the world is now witnessing in the thawing Arctic Ocean
This edited collection investigates New Zealand’s history as an imperial power, and its evolving place within the British Empire. It revises and expands the history of empire within, to and from New Zealand by looking at the country’s spheres of internal imperialism, its relationship with Australia, its Pacific empire and its outreach to Antarctica. The book critically revises our understanding of the range of ways that New Zealand has played a role as an imperial power, including the cultural histories of New Zealand inside the British Empire, engagements with imperial practices and notions of imperialism, the special significance of New Zealand in the Pacific region, and the circulation of ideas of empire both through and inside New Zealand over time. The essays in this volume span social, cultural, political and economic history, and in testing the concept of New Zealand's empire, the contributors take new directions in both historiographical and empirical research.
Examines the expectations from the exploitation of krill and mineral resources of Antarctica and how they will affect review of the Antarctic Treaty by the fourteen member nations. Also examines the chances for this region to be preserved for peaceful use alone, as a common heritage of mankind.
The Antarctic Treaty (1959) was adopted for the purpose of bringing peace and stability to Antarctica and to facilitate cooperation in scientific research conducted on and around the continent. It has now been over fifty years since the signing of the treaty, nevertheless security continues to drive and shape the laws and policy regime which governs the region. Antarctic Security in the Twenty-First Century: Legal and Policy Perspectives assess Antarctic security from multiple legal and policy perspectives. This book reviews the existing security construct in Antarctica, critically assesses its status in the early part of the Twenty-First century and considers how Antarctic security may be viewed in both the immediate and distant future. The book assesses emerging new security threats, including the impact of climate change and the issues arising from increased human traffic to Antarctica by scientists, tourists, and mariners. The authors call into question whether the existing Antarctic security construct framed around the Antarctic Treaty remains viable, or whether new Antarctic paradigms are necessary for the future governance of the region. The contributions to this volume engage with a security discourse which has expanded beyond the traditional military domain to include notions of security from the perspective of economics, the environment and bio-security. This book provides a contemporary and innovative approach to Antarctic issues which will be of interest to scholars of international law, international relations, security studies and political science as well as policy makers, lawyers and government officials with an interest in the region.
Arguing that Antarctica is the most mediated place on earth and thus an ideal location for testing the limits of bio-political management of population and place, this book remaps national and postcolonial methods and offers a new look on a 'forgotten' continent now the focus of ecological concern.
These three volumes contain a comprehensive & current documentation of sources of international environmental law (200 instruments) in a handy version. Several of these documents were never printed elsewhere. Volume 1 embodies the important declarations, resolutions or drafts of international organizations & bodies: 25 UNO/UNEP/FAO documents (including all UNEP-guidelines), 15 resolutions of the three recording bodies (International Law Association, Institut de Droit International & ILC), 14 ECE-Declarations/Recommendations, 32 OECD-Decisions/Recommendations, 10 Resolutions/Recommendations of the Council of Europe, 9 Declarations on Climate Change/Sustainable Development, 9 important Drafts (including the US-Restatement & the new ECE-Draft Convention on Transboundary Watercourses). Volumes 2 & 3 contain the bior multilateral agreements: 28 global or regional Agreements for the protection of seas (including the new Lisbon Convention & the Kingston Protocol), 17 Agreements of Regimes of European, American or African Rivers (including the Guidelines/Action Programmes for Lake Constance & Rhine, & the consolidated version of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement), 14 global & 9 regional Agreements for the protection of species & nature (including the new Protocol for the Antarctic), 2 Conventions for the protection of soils (control of wastes), 11 Agreements for the protection of air/atmosphere (including the new Geneva VOCs-Protocol) & documents for the Earth Summit (2 UN-Resolutions, Drafts of Earth Charter, Biodiversity & Climate Convention). Several documents are of 1991 (a few of December 1991). The volumes contain introductions to each part, references, basic data of the treaties, & three forewords ( G. Handl, H.D. Genscher & Prince Charles ).
Examines the international legal issues surrounding future exploitation of resources in the Antarctic region. Analyses the Antarctic Treaty and discusses twelve proposals viewed as most likely alternatives for a new international regime for the Antarctic region.
Chapters include an analysis of the feasibility with comparison to the arctic experience at the Black Angel, Polaris and Lupin mines; the strategic role of platinum as a rationale for platinum mining in Antarctica; the future of Antarctic mineral resources; establishing an Antarctic mineral resource inventory.
Antarctica is the last, most inhospitable frontier on earth, yet it presents a great number of unresolved conflicts between nations, individuals, environmentalists, scientists and business groups. The International Law of Antarctica addresses the crucial question of how international law can respond to claims that will certainly shape tomorrow's Antarctica. The author adopts a policy-oriented approach and focuses on the primary issue of determining the effective norms by which the process of value shaping and sharing develops in Antarctica, and to what extent such norms satisfy the prevailing aspirations of the world community. Where discrepancies are significant policies are proposed that may better meet such aspirations, as well as methods for their implementation. Part I of this study describes the social, power, and legal processes relating to Antarctica; reviews the geographic, technological, economic, and historical context in which these processes evolve, and how their special features affect such processes; and finally postulates the basic community policies with reference to which the process of claims and decisions in Antarctica are analyzed. Part II focuses on national claims to Antarctica by reviewing claims relating to the modes to establish exclusive appropriation of the area. Part III is a detailed examination of specific claims to Antarctica resources: claims to mineral and living resources, and claims relating to space-extension resources, namely, Antarctica sea and air space. It is concluded by an appraisal of the congruence of the existing order of Antarctica with the postulated basic policies, critically reviewing proposals for a new order, and advancing long-term and more immediate alternatives.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Antarctica is poised at the edge of a warmer and busier world. Leading Antarctic researchers examine the needs and challenges of Antarctic environmental management today and tomorrow. Through: (i) investigating the impacts of human activities on specific ecosystems and species, (ii) examining existing environmental management and monitoring practices in place in various regions and (iii) interrogating stakeholders, they address the following questions: What future will Business-As-Usual bring to the Antarctic environment? Will a Business-As-Usual future be compatible with the objectives set out under the Antarctic Treaty, especially its Protocol on Environmental Protection? What actions are necessary to bring about alternative futures for the next 50 years? This volume is an outcome of the International Polar Year (2007-2009) Oslo Science Conference (8-12, June, 2010).