The Architecture of Closed Worlds

The Architecture of Closed Worlds

What do outer space capsules, submarines, and office buildings have in common? Each is conceived as a closed system: a self-sustaining physical environment demarcated from its surroundings by a boundary that does not allow for the transfer of matter or energy. Contemporary discussions about global warming, recycling, and sustainability have emerged as direct conceptual constructs related to the study and analysis of closed systems. From the space program to countercultural architectural groups experimenting with autonomous living, this publication documents a disciplinary transformation and the rise of a new environmental consensus in the form of a synthetic naturalism. It presents an archive of 39 historical living prototypes from 1928 to the present that put forth an unexplored genealogy of closed resource regeneration systems. Prototypes are presented through unique discursive narratives with historical images, and each includes new analysis in the form of a feedback drawing that problematizes the language of environmental representation by illustrating loss, derailment, and the production of new substances and atmospheres.

The Closed World

Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America

The Closed World

The Closed World offers a radically new alternative to the canonical histories of computers and cognitive science. Arguing that we can make sense of computers as tools only when we simultaneously grasp their roles as metaphors and political icons, Paul Edwards shows how Cold War social and cultural contexts shaped emerging computer technology--and were transformed, in turn, by information machines. The Closed World explores three apparently disparate histories--the history of American global power, the history of computing machines, and the history of subjectivity in science and culture--through the lens of the American political imagination. In the process, it reveals intimate links between the military projects of the Cold War, the evolution of digital computers, and the origins of cybernetics, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence. Edwards begins by describing the emergence of a "closed-world discourse" of global surveillance and control through high-technology military power. The Cold War political goal of "containment" led to the SAGE continental air defense system, Rand Corporation studies of nuclear strategy, and the advanced technologies of the Vietnam War. These and other centralized, computerized military command and control projects--for containing world-scale conflicts--helped closed-world discourse dominate Cold War political decisions. Their apotheosis was the Reagan-era plan for a " Star Wars" space-based ballistic missile defense. Edwards then shows how these military projects helped computers become axial metaphors in psychological theory. Analyzing the Macy Conferences on cybernetics, the Harvard Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, and the early history of artificial intelligence, he describes the formation of a "cyborg discourse." By constructing both human minds and artificial intelligences as information machines, cyborg discourse assisted in integrating people into the hyper-complex technological systems of the closed world. Finally, Edwards explores the cyborg as political identity in science fiction--from the disembodied, panoptic AI of 2001: A Space Odyssey, to the mechanical robots of Star Wars and the engineered biological androids of Blade Runner--where Information Age culture and subjectivity were both reflected and constructed. Inside Technology series

The Meaning of Technology. Selected Readings from

The Meaning of Technology. Selected Readings from

The meaning of technology has been subject of continuous discussion. This selection of readings, ranging from primary sources to scholarly and critical works and literary renderings, is intended to furnish elements for that discussion. The history of the United States began with the advent of the industrial revolution, which, in turn, became an integral part of American national and cultural identity. Accordingly, that country provides an appropriate setting in which to examine the debate on technology. The reader is asked to relate the selected views herein included to his or her own notion of technology and progress as they both relate to the also controversial terms of culture, ideology, nature and gender.

The architecture of hospitals

The architecture of hospitals

The Architecture of Hospitals~ISBN 90-5662-464-4 U.S. $75.00 / Paperback, 7 x 9.5 in. / 512 pgs / 300 color and 100 b&w. ~Item / March / Architecture

The Architecture of Tokyo

An Architectural History in 571 Individual Presentations

The Architecture of Tokyo

The Tokyo region is the most populous metropolitan area in the world and a place of extraordinary vitality. The political, economic and cultural center of Japan, Tokyo also exerts an enormous international influence. In fact the region has been pivotal to the nation's affairs for centuries. Its sheer size, its concentration of resources and institutions and its long history have produced buildings of many different types from many different eras. This is the first guide to introduce in one volume the architecture of the Tokyo region, encompassing Tokyo proper and adjacent prefectures, in all its remarkable variety. The buildings are presented chronologically and grouped into six periods: the medieval period (1185-1600), the Edo period (1600-1868), the Meiji period (1868-1912), the Taisho and early Showa period (1912-1945), the post-war reconstruction period (1945-1970) and the contemporary period (1970 until today). This comprehensive coverage permits those interested in Japanese architecture or culture to focus on a particular era or to examine buildings within a larger temporal framework. A concise discussion of the history of the region and the architecture of Japan develops a context within which the individual works may be viewed. Over 500 buildings are presented, from 15th-century Buddhist temples to 20th-century cultural buildings, from venerable folkhouses to works by leading contemporary architects of Japan such as Kenzo Tange, Fumihiko Maki, Arata Isozaki, Hiroshi Hara, Toyo Ito and Riken Yamamoto as well as by foreign architects such as Norman Foster, Peter Eisenman and Steven Holl.

The Architecture of Address

The Monument and Public Speech in American Poetry

The Architecture of Address

The Architecture of Address traces the evolution of an American species of lyric capable of public pronouncement without polemic. Beginning with Whitman, Jake Adam York seeks to describe a kind of poem wherein the most ambitious poets--including Hart Crane and Robert Lowell--occupy and reconstruct important public spaces. This study argues that American poets become civic actors when their poems imagine and reconstruct the conceptual architecture of the monument.

Architecture of Regionalism in the Age of Globalization

Peaks and Valleys in the Flat World

Architecture of Regionalism in the Age of Globalization

The definitive introductory book on the theory and history of regionalist architecture in the context of globalization, this text addresses issues of identity, community, and sustainability along with a selection of the most outstanding examples of design from all over the world. Alex Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre give a readable, vivid, scholarly account of this major conflict as it relates to the design of the human-made environment. Demystifying the reasons behind how globalization enabled creativity and brought about unprecedented wealth but also produced new wastefulness and ecological destruction, the book also looks at how regionalism has also tended to confine, tearing apart societies and promoting destructive consumerist tourism.

The Architecture of Oppression

The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy

The Architecture of Oppression

This book re-evaluates the architectural history of Nazi Germany and looks at the development of the forced-labour concentration camp system. Through an analysis of such major Nazi building projects as the Nuremberg Party Rally Grounds and the rebuilding of Berlin, Jaskot ties together the development of the German building economy, state architectural goals and the rise of the SS as a political and economic force. As a result, The Architecture of Oppression contributes to our understanding of the conjunction of culture and politics in the Nazi period as well as the agency of architects and SS administrators in enabling this process.

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture

"First published as: The Oxford companion to Christian art and architecture in 1996 by Oxford University Press." --T.p. verso.

Machine Dreams

Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science

Machine Dreams

Machine Dreams recounts how the computer has transformed the content of American economics.