First published in 2004, this is a rigorous but user-friendly book on the application of stochastic control theory to economics. A distinctive feature of the book is that mathematical concepts are introduced in a language and terminology familiar to graduate students of economics. The standard topics of many mathematics, economics and finance books are illustrated with real examples documented in the economic literature. Moreover, the book emphasises the dos and don'ts of stochastic calculus, cautioning the reader that certain results and intuitions cherished by many economists do not extend to stochastic models. A special chapter (Chapter 5) is devoted to exploring various methods of finding a closed-form representation of the value function of a stochastic control problem, which is essential for ascertaining the optimal policy functions. The book also includes many practice exercises for the reader. Notes and suggested readings are provided at the end of each chapter for more references and possible extensions.

## Continuous-time Stochastic Control and Optimization with Financial Applications

Stochastic optimization problems arise in decision-making problems under uncertainty, and find various applications in economics and finance. On the other hand, problems in finance have recently led to new developments in the theory of stochastic control. This volume provides a systematic treatment of stochastic optimization problems applied to finance by presenting the different existing methods: dynamic programming, viscosity solutions, backward stochastic differential equations, and martingale duality methods. The theory is discussed in the context of recent developments in this field, with complete and detailed proofs, and is illustrated by means of concrete examples from the world of finance: portfolio allocation, option hedging, real options, optimal investment, etc. This book is directed towards graduate students and researchers in mathematical finance, and will also benefit applied mathematicians interested in financial applications and practitioners wishing to know more about the use of stochastic optimization methods in finance.

## Contract Theory in Continuous-Time Models

In recent years there has been a significant increase of interest in continuous-time Principal-Agent models, or contract theory, and their applications. Continuous-time models provide a powerful and elegant framework for solving stochastic optimization problems of finding the optimal contracts between two parties, under various assumptions on the information they have access to, and the effect they have on the underlying "profit/loss" values. This monograph surveys recent results of the theory in a systematic way, using the approach of the so-called Stochastic Maximum Principle, in models driven by Brownian Motion. Optimal contracts are characterized via a system of Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations. In a number of interesting special cases these can be solved explicitly, enabling derivation of many qualitative economic conclusions.

## Stochastic Optimization Models in Finance

A reprint of one of the classic volumes on portfolio theory and investment, this book has been used by the leading professors at universities such as Stanford, Berkeley, and Carnegie-Mellon. It contains five parts, each with a review of the literature and about 150 pages of computational and review exercises and further in-depth, challenging problems. Frequently referenced and highly usable, the material remains as fresh and relevant for a portfolio theory course as ever. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Expected Utility Theory (373 KB). Contents: Mathematical Tools: Expected Utility Theory; Convexity and the Kuhn-Tucker Conditions; Dynamic Programming; Qualitative Economic Results: Stochastic Dominance; Measures of Risk Aversion; Separation Theorems; Static Portfolio Selection Models: Mean-Variance and Safety First Approaches and Their Extensions; Existence and Diversification of Optimal Portfolio Policies: Effects of Taxes on Risk Taking; Dynamic Models Reducible to Static Models: Models That Have a Single Decision Point; Risk Aversion over Time Implies Static Risk Aversion; Myopic Portfolio Policies; Dynamic Models: Two-Period Consumption Models and Portfolio Revision; Models of Optimal Capital Accumulation and Portfolio Selection; Models of Option Strategy; The Capital Growth Criterion and Continuous-Time Models. Readership: Postdoctoral and graduate students, researchers, academics, and professionals interested in portfolio theory and stochastic optimization.

## Relative Optimization of Continuous-Time and Continuous-State Stochastic Systems

This monograph applies the relative optimization approach to time nonhomogeneous continuous-time and continuous-state dynamic systems. The approach is intuitively clear and does not require deep knowledge of the mathematics of partial differential equations. The topics covered have the following distinguishing features: long-run average with no under-selectivity, non-smooth value functions with no viscosity solutions, diffusion processes with degenerate points, multi-class optimization with state classification, and optimization with no dynamic programming. The book begins with an introduction to relative optimization, including a comparison with the traditional approach of dynamic programming. The text then studies the Markov process, focusing on infinite-horizon optimization problems, and moves on to discuss optimal control of diffusion processes with semi-smooth value functions and degenerate points, and optimization of multi-dimensional diffusion processes. The book concludes with a brief overview of performance derivative-based optimization. Among the more important novel considerations presented are: the extension of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman optimality condition from smooth to semi-smooth value functions by derivation of explicit optimality conditions at semi-smooth points and application of this result to degenerate and reflected processes; proof of semi-smoothness of the value function at degenerate points; attention to the under-selectivity issue for the long-run average and bias optimality; discussion of state classification for time nonhomogeneous continuous processes and multi-class optimization; and development of the multi-dimensional Tanaka formula for semi-smooth functions and application of this formula to stochastic control of multi-dimensional systems with degenerate points. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in the field of stochastic control and performance optimization alike.

## Optimization in Economics and Finance

*Some Advances in Non-Linear, Dynamic, Multi-Criteria and Stochastic Models*

## Sequential Stochastic Optimization

Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians andapplied researchers with a well-developed framework in whichstochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved.Offering much material that is either new or has never beforeappeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory ofoptimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochasticprocesses. This book has been carefully organized so that littleprior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisitesare a standard graduate course in probability theory and somefamiliarity with discrete-parameter martingales. Major topics covered in Sequential Stochastic Optimization include: * Fundamental notions, such as essential supremum, stopping points,accessibility, martingales and supermartingales indexed by INd * Conditions which ensure the integrability of certain suprema ofpartial sums of arrays of independent random variables * The general theory of optimal stopping for processes indexed byInd * Structural properties of information flows * Sequential sampling and the theory of optimal sequential control * Multi-armed bandits, Markov chains and optimal switching betweenrandom walks

## Stochastic Models in Operations Research: Stochastic optimization

This two-volume set of texts explores the central facts and ideas of stochastic processes, illustrating their use in models based on applied and theoretical investigations. They demonstrate the interdependence of three areas of study that usually receive separate treatments: stochastic processes, operating characteristics of stochastic systems, and stochastic optimization. Comprehensive in its scope, they emphasize the practical importance, intellectual stimulation, and mathematical elegance of stochastic models and are intended primarily as graduate-level texts.

## Stochastic Control in Discrete and Continuous Time

This book contains an introduction to three topics in stochastic control: discrete time stochastic control, i. e. , stochastic dynamic programming (Chapter 1), piecewise - terministic control problems (Chapter 3), and control of Ito diffusions (Chapter 4). The chapters include treatments of optimal stopping problems. An Appendix - calls material from elementary probability theory and gives heuristic explanations of certain more advanced tools in probability theory. The book will hopefully be of interest to students in several ?elds: economics, engineering, operations research, ?nance, business, mathematics. In economics and business administration, graduate students should readily be able to read it, and the mathematical level can be suitable for advanced undergraduates in mathem- ics and science. The prerequisites for reading the book are only a calculus course and a course in elementary probability. (Certain technical comments may demand a slightly better background. ) As this book perhaps (and hopefully) will be read by readers with widely diff- ing backgrounds, some general advice may be useful: Don’t be put off if paragraphs, comments, or remarks contain material of a seemingly more technical nature that you don’t understand. Just skip such material and continue reading, it will surely not be needed in order to understand the main ideas and results. The presentation avoids the use of measure theory.

## Financial Markets in Continuous Time

This book explains key financial concepts, mathematical tools and theories of mathematical finance. It is organized in four parts. The first brings together a number of results from discrete-time models. The second develops stochastic continuous-time models for the valuation of financial assets (the Black-Scholes formula and its extensions), for optimal portfolio and consumption choice, and for obtaining the yield curve and pricing interest rate products. The third part recalls some concepts and results of equilibrium theory and applies this in financial markets. The last part tackles market incompleteness and the valuation of exotic options.