Organic farming is an agricultural practice, characterized by the use of products of organic origin like compost manure, bone meal, green manure, etc. It also involves the techniques of companion planting and crop rotation. Organic farming is a system that discourages the use of plant growth regulators, antibiotics in livestock, hormones, genetically modified organisms, etc. It strives to adopt a healthy, sustainable and self-sufficient approach to farming. Crop diversity, composting, biological pest control, integrated pest management, etc. are some of the common practices of this field. The study of organic farming methods is under the scope of agroecology. This book unfolds the innovative aspects of organic farming which will be crucial for the progress of this field in the future. Also included in this book is a detailed explanation of the various concepts and practices of this discipline. As this field is emerging at a rapid pace, the contents of this book will help the readers understand the modern concepts of the subject.
With global revenue surpassing twenty-five billion dollars annually, organic agriculture is a highly visible and rapidly growing component of agricultural production. In Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective, Paul Kristiansen, Acram Taji, and John Reganold, and their international group of contributors scientifically review key aspects of organic agriculture. At the intersection of research, education, and practice, the contributors look at the organic agricultural movement’s successes and limitations. The first half of this book critically evaluates the agricultural production of both plants and livestock in organic farming systems. All major aspects of organic agriculture are explored, including historical background and underlying principles, soil-fertility management, crop and animal production, breeding strategies, and crop protection. This global and comprehensive overview also addresses the economic, social, and political aspects of organic farming. These include economics and marketing; standards and certification; environmental impacts and social responsibility; and research, education, and extension. The book is a unique and timely science-based international work documenting current practices in organic agriculture and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses. For more than two decades, research into organic methods by mainstream scientists has generated a large body of information that can now be integrated and used for assessing the actual impacts of organic farming in a wide range of disciplines. The knowledge of selected international experts has been combined in one volume, providing a comprehensive review of organic farming globally. Researchers, teachers, extensionists, students, primary producers and others around the world who are interested in sustainable agriculture will find this book to be a valuable and reliable resource.
The demand for food produced from sustainable and organic farm enterprises continues to grow worldwide, with demand exceeding supply for many items. This second edition of an extremely well received and successful book covers every aspect of an organic farm enterprise that can have an influence on profitability. As such the book is an essential purchase for all those involved in organic and sustainable farming. Topics covered in this second edition of Profitable Organic Farming include grassland productivity, production systems for dairy, beef, sheep, pig, poultry and arable farms, farm size and enterprise combinations, organic standards, financial management, marketing, success factors and progress by organic farmers. The book concludes with a new chapter covering potential future scenarios for organic farming. Drawing on new information available in the area and including case studies from successful organic farm businesses, the author Jon Newton has written a book that is of great commercial use to a wide range of workers including organic farm managers and those wishing to commence organic farming operations. The book is also of great use and interest to agricultural scientists and students and those working in government and regional agricultural advisory services worldwide. Libraries in research establishments, universities and colleges where agricultural sciences are studied and taught should have several copies of this important and useful book on their shelves. Review of the first edition ‘It is an essential volume for any commercial organic farmers or budding organic farmers bookshelf. It will no doubt also be a very popular read and provide much food for thought amongst many agricultural students’: New Farmer & Grower. Jon Newton is an agricultural consultant specialising in organic and sustainable agriculture based in North Wales, UK.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. This important compilation presents an in-depth view spanning past values and practices, present understandings, and potential futures, and covering a range of concrete case studies on sustainable development of organic agriculture. The book explores the very different facets of organic and sustainable agriculture. Part I of this book delves into the ways that people have approached organic agriculture in sociological, scientific, and economic terms. Part II looks ahead to the future of organic agriculture, presenting opportunities for further progress. Part III consists of an extensive bibliography chronologically developing the progress of organic and sustainable agriculture over two thousand years. The book Studies the cultural dimension of organic consumption Presents how sustainable agriculture can reduce and mitigate the impact of climate change on crop production Looks at the impact of agriculture on both famine and rural poverty in an ecofriendly and socially inclusive manner Examines six of the oldest grain-crop-based organic comparison experiments in the US, looking at the environmental and economic outcomes from organic agroecosystems, to both producers and policymakers Reviews the role of experimentation and innovation in developing sustainable organic agriculture Looks at the challenges of organic farmers Discusses ways to ensure sustainability and resilience of farming Looks at ways to change the mindset of farmers especially in traditional farming communities Explores the development of organic and sustainable agriculture through more than 500 years, ending with the early twenty-first century. Altogether, the chapters provide a nuanced look at the development of organic and sustainable agriculture, with the conclusion that organic is not enough to be sustainable.
This book represents a current look at what we know about organic farming practices and systems, primarily from the U.S. and Canadian perspectives. the discussion begins with history and certification, ecological knowledge as the foundation for sustaining food systems, and biodiversity. The next chapters address crop-animal systems; forages, grain, oil seed, and specialty crops; organic cropping and soil nutrient needs; and vegetation and pest management. Readers will next learn about marketing organics, organic foods and food security, and education and research. The book concludes with a survey of the future of organic farming and a perspective on the agricultural industry and the future of the rural sector.--COVER.
During his years as a scientist working for the British government in India, Sir Albert Howard conceived of and refined the principles of organic agriculture. Howard’s The Soil and Health became a seminal and inspirational text in the organic movement soon after its publication in 1945. The Soil and Health argues that industrial agriculture, emergent in Howard’s era and dominant today, disrupts the delicate balance of nature and irrevocably robs the soil of its fertility. Howard’s classic treatise links the burgeoning health crises facing crops, livestock, and humanity to this radical degradation of the Earth’s soil. His message—that we must respect and restore the health of the soil for the benefit of future generations—still resonates among those who are concerned about the effects of chemically enhanced agriculture.
The Common Agricultural Policy and Organic Farming covers how ideational change came about to enhance the understanding of change within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and to plan and implement change in European agriculture policy. The contents cover institutional change within the CAP and focus on the institutional construction policy concerned with organic farming.
Biological nitrogen fixation in tropical agrosystems: twenty years of biological nitrogen fixation research in Africa; Sustainable agriculture: definition and measurement; Biological nitrogen fixation systems in tropical ecosystems: an overview; A protocol for screening legumes as soil-improving crops; The sustenance of tropical agriculture with multipurpose azolla; Facteurs pedoclimatiques limitant la lixation biologique l'azole; Response of some tropical nitrogen-fixing woody legumes to drought and inoculation with mycorrhiza; Improvement to the Phaseolus/Rhizobium symbiosis, with particular reference to the Caribbean region; Effect of pest management systems on biological nitrogen fixation; Agronomic evaluation of a rock phosphate as a phosphorus source for Leucaena leucocephala grown on an utisol; Nodulation of soybean grown under field conditions and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains; Effect of fertilization and Rhizobium inoculation on the growth of Leucaena and Gliricidia on an alfisol in south-western Nigeria; Early growth and nodulation in Leucaena and Gliricidia and the effects or pruning on biomass productivity; Comparative stude on the growth and productivity of Sesbania and Leucaena in the Central Plateau region, Rwanda; Supernoculation and non-nodulation mutants of soybean; Genetically improved rhizobia and their use in agriculture; Sustainability of nitrogen-fixing cropping systems: Nodulation and nitrogen fixation and transfer in a cowpea/rice cropping system; The role of legumes in sustaiing soil productivity and controlling soil erosion; Fitting soil-improving legumes into inland valley rice-baes cropping systems in West Africa; Herbage yield and soil fertility restoration potential of some tropical forage legumes.
From the thinning of the Arctic sea ice to the invasion of the mosquito-borne West Nile virus, State of the World 2001 shows how the economic boom of the last decade has damaged natural systems. The increasingly visible evidence of environmental deterioration is only the tip of a much more dangerous problem: the growing inequities in wealth and income between countries and within countries, inequities that will generate enormous social unrest and pressure for change.
Bio-Fertilizers are natural fertilizers which are microbial inoculants of bacteria, algae, fungi alone or in combination and they augment the availability of nutrients to the plants. The use of bio-fertilizers, in preference to chemical fertilizers, offers economic and ecological benefits by way of soil health and fertility to farmers. In view of the immense potential of bio-fertilizer technology covers all major types of bacterial fertilizers. This book will be of use and interest to consultants, researchers, libraries, entrepreneurs, manufacturers of bio-fertilizer and for those who wants to venture in to this field.