Studies in honour of H G Widdowson. Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics provides a comprehensive overview of the many and diverse areas in applied linguistics today. The papers range from second language acquisition to discourse analysis, corpus lingustics, and classroom practice; together they emphasize the reciprocal relationship of principle and practice, and the interdisciplinary nature of applied lingustics.
Despite the key role played by second language acquisition (SLA) courses in linguistics, teacher education and language teaching degrees, participants often struggle to bridge the gap between SLA theories and their many applications in the classroom. In order to overcome the 'transfer' problem from theory to practice, Andrea Nava and Luciana Pedrazzini present SLA principles through the actions and words of teachers and learners. Second Language Acquisition in Action identifies eight important SLA principles and involves readers in an 'experiential' approach which enables them to explore these principles 'in action'. Each chapter is structured around three stages: experience and reflection; conceptualisation; and restructuring and planning. Discussion questions and tasks represent the core of the book. These help readers in the process of 'experiencing' SLA research and provide them with opportunities to try their hands at different areas of language teachers' professional expertise. Aimed at those on applied linguistics MA courses, TESOL/EFL trainees and in-service teachers, Second Language Acquisition in Action features: · Key Questions at the start of each chapter · Data-based tasks to foster reflection and to help bridge the gap between theory and practice · Audiovisual extracts of lessons on an accompanying website · Further Reading suggestions at the end of each chapter
This book tracks the development of Exploratory Practice since the early 1990s as an original form of practitioner research in the field of English language teaching. Drawing on case studies, vignettes and narratives from teachers and learners around the world as they experienced Exploratory Practice in their different contexts, Hanks examines the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of the Exploratory Practice framework and asks what the principles really mean in practice. For language professionals considering investigating their classrooms and their teaching/learning practices rigorously and thoughtfully, this book breaks new ground, arguing for a fresh perspective: (exploratory) practice-as-research. Judith Hanks is Lecturer in TESOL at the University of Leeds, UK. Her work bridges specialist areas in language teacher education, intercultural communication, TESOL and EAP.
What general principles should inform a socioculturally sensitive pedagogy for teaching English as an International Language and what practices would be consistent with these principles? This text explores the pedagogical implications of the continuing spread of English and its role as an international language, highlighting the importance of socially sensitive pedagogy in contexts outside inner circle English-speaking countries. It provides comprehensive coverage of topics traditionally included in second language methodology courses (such as the teaching of oral skills and grammar), as well as newer fields (such as corpora in language teaching and multimodality); features balanced treatment of theory and practice; and encourages teachers to apply the pedagogical practices to their own classrooms and to reflect on the effects of such practices. Designed for pre-service and in-service teachers of English around the world, Principles and Practices for Teaching English as an International Language fills a critical need in the field.
This second edition of the foundational textbook An Introduction to Applied Linguistics provides a state-of-the-art account of contemporary applied linguistics. The kinds of language problems of interest to applied linguists are discussed and a distinction drawn between the different research approach taken by theoretical linguists and by applied linguists to what seem to be the same problems. Professor Davies describes a variety of projects which illustrate the interests of the field and highlight the marriage it offers between practical experience and theoretical understanding. The increasing emphasis of applied linguistics on ethicality is linked to the growth of professionalism and to the concern for accountability, manifested in the widening emphasis on critical stances. This, Davies argues, is at its most acute in the tension between giving advice as the outcome of research and taking political action in order to change a situation which, it is claimed, needs ameliorisation. This dilemma is not confined to applied linguistics and may now be endemic in the applied disciplines.
This book critically examines current ELT practices vis-à-vis the use of English as an international lingua franca. It bridges the gap between theoretical discussion and the practical concerns of teaching English as an international language, and presents diverse approaches for preparing competent users of English in international contexts.
Offering a unique, data-led, evidence-based approach to reflective practice in English language teaching, this book brings together theory, research and practice in an accessible way to demonstrate what reflective practice looks like and how it is undertaken in a range of contexts. Readers learn how to do and to research reflective practice in their own settings. Through the use of data, dialogue and appropriate tools, the authors show how reflective practice can be used as an ongoing teaching tool that supports professional self-development.
The present volume examines the relationship between second language practice and what is known about the process of second language acquisition, summarising the current state of second language acquisition theory, drawing general conclusions about its application to methods and materials and describing what characteristics effective materials should have. The author concludes that a solution to language teaching lies not so much in expensive equipment, exotic new methods, or sophisticated language analysis, but rather in the full utilisation of the most important resources - native speakers of the language - in real communication.
Applied Linguistics in the Real World introduces readers to situations in which applied linguistics can be and is used. Presenting a panoramic view of the interdisciplinary area of applied linguistics and highlighting the diverse range of twenty-first century occupations that have linguistics at their center, this book: Describes, discusses, and furthers the idea that linguistic knowledge is useful everywhere—from forensic investigations to diplomatic talks; from disability studies to creative writing; and from translation studies to machine learning; Breaks new ground, expanding beyond well-established areas of applied-linguistic interest in its inclusion of disability studies, peace studies and the new literature; Provides readers with original research questions and practical applications for them to expand their own research portfolios. Written in an accessible, direct style, Applied Linguistics in the Real World will be essential reading for all students of applied linguistics and is an important addition to the library of anyone who feels passionate and inspired by language matters.
Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics consists of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, designed for those entering postgraduate studies and language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative "practice to theory" approach, with a ‘back to front’ structure which takes the reader from real life problems and issues in the field, then enters into a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns. The final section concludes by tying the practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. This book looks particularly at the relationship between language, interaction and learning. Providing a comprehensive account of current perspectives on classroom discourse, the book aims to promote a fuller understanding of interaction, regarded as being central to effective teaching and introduces the concept of classroom interactional competence (CIC). The case is made in this book for a need not only to describe classroom discourse, but to ensure that teachers and learners develop the kind of interactional competence which will result in more engaged, dynamic classrooms where learners are actively involved in the learning process. This approach makes an invaluable resource for language teachers, as well as students of language and education, and language acquisition within the field of applied linguistics.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an authoritative reference dealing with all aspects of this increasingly important field of study. Offering a comprehensive range of articles on contemporary language teaching and its history, it has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals and as a reference work for academic studies at postgraduate level. In this new edition, every single entry has been reviewed and updated with reference to new developments and publications. Coverage has been expanded to reflect new technological, global and academic developments, with particular attention to areas such as online and distance learning, teacher and learner cognition, testing, assessment and evaluation, global English and teacher education. Themes and disciplines covered include: Methods and materials, including new technologies and materials development Contexts and concepts, such as mediation, risk-taking in language learning and intercomprehension Influential figures from the early days of language teaching to the contemporary Related disciplines, such as psychology, anthropology and corpus linguistics? It covers the teaching of specific languages, including Japanese, Chinese, Arabic and African languages, as well as English, French, German and Spanish. There are thirty five overview articles dealing with issues such as communicative language teaching, early language learning, teacher education and syllabus and curriculum design. A further 160 entries focus on topics such as bilingualism, language laboratories and study abroad. Numerous shorter items examine language and cultural institutions, professional associations and acronyms. Multiple cross-references enable the user to browse from one entry to another, and there are suggestions for further reading. Written by an international team of specialists, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an invaluable resource and reference manual for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject.
Professor Braj Kachru (b. 1932) has pioneered, shaped and defined the scholarly field of world Englishes. He is the founder and co-editor of World Englishes, the associate editor of the Oxford Companion to the English Language and contributor to the Cambridge History of the English Language. His research on world Englishes, the Kashmiri language and literature, and theoretical and applied studies on language and society has resulted in more than 25 authored and edited volumes and more than 100 research papers, review articles, and reviews. The second volume of these Collected Works contains selections of some of Kachru's most important work in the field of World Englishes from the years between the 1992 and 2001.
This book examines current advances in the role of interactional feedback in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Drawing on recent theory and research in both classroom and laboratory contexts, the book explores a wide range of issues regarding interactional feedback and their relevance for both theory and practice, including how interactional feedback is used, processed, and contributes to L2 acquisition. This book will provide a useful resource for applied linguistics students and academics as well as language teachers and teacher educators who would like to gain insight into the role of interactional feedback and how it can be used as a means of integrating form and meaning in classroom contexts.
The metalinguistic dimension refers to the way in which learners bring to bear knowledge about language into their learning of a second language, the "L2". This book brings together new research on the metalinguistic dimension, given its increasing importance in the study of L2 acquisition. In applied linguistics it is widely accepted that L2 learners develop and use knowledge about language when engaging with the challenging task of acquiring a new language; this applies to both children and adults. It is definitions of the metalinguistic dimension that vary, and findings regarding its role in L2 learning are not necessarily homogenous or compatible. The scope exists for further, empirical, detailed research. This book explores the nature, development and role of the metalinguistic dimension and will be essential reading for all SLA scholars and those working in language and education.
Based on the assumptions that students expect feedback and want to improve, and that improvement is possible, this book introduces a framework that applies the theory of self-regulated learning to guide second language writing teachers' response to learners at all stages of the writing process. This approach provides teachers with principles and activities for helping students to take more responsibility for their own learning. By using self-regulated learning strategies, students can increase their independence from the teacher, improve their writing skills, and continue to make progress once the course ends, with or without teacher guidance. The book focuses on the six dimensions of self-regulated learning —motive, methods of learning, time, physical environment, social environment, and performance. Each chapter offers practical activities and suggestions for implementing the principles and guidelines, including tools and materials that teachers can immediately use.
Professor Stern puts applied linguistics research into its historical and interdisciplinary perspective. He gives an authoritative survey of past developments worldwide and establishes a set of guidelines for the future. There are six parts: Clearing the Ground, Historical Perspectives, Concepts of Language, Concepts of Society, Concepts of Language Learning, and Concepts of Language Teaching.
Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research that underpins so many different areas of the language and literacy curriculum. This book illustrates the impact of applied linguistics on curriculum frameworks and pedagogy. It captures the range of applied linguistics knowledge that teachers need, and illustrates how this is framed and is used by policy makers, researchers, teacher educators and the other professions who work with teachers in schools. It considers how to effect professional development that works. It is essential reading for primary teachers but also for speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, learning support teachers and all those doing language or literacy research in the primary classroom.
This book traces the historical development of major language teaching methods in terms of theoretical principles and classroom procedures, and provides a critical evaluation of each. Drawing from seminal, foundational texts and from critical commentaries made by various scholars, Kumaravadivelu examines the profession's current transition from method to postmethod and, in the process, elucidates the relationship between theory, research, and practice. The chief objective is to help readers see the pattern that connects language, learning, teaching methods, and postmethod perspectives. In this book, Kumaravadivelu: *brings together a critical vision of L2 learning and teaching--a vision founded at once on historical development and contemporary thought; *connects findings of up-to-date research in L2 learning with issues in L2 teaching thus making the reader aware of the relationship between theory, research and practice; *presents language teaching methods within a coherent framework of language-, learner-, and learning-centered pedagogies, thus helping the reader to see how they are related to each other; *shows how the three categories of methods evolved historically leading ultimately (and inevitably) to the emergence of a postmethod condition; and *provides the reader with a solid background in several interconnected areas of L2 pedagogy, such as concepts of competence, input factors, intake processes, interactional modifications, and instructional design. Understanding Language Teaching: From Method to Postmethod is intended for an international audience of teacher educators, practicing teachers and graduate students, researchers, curriculum planners, and materials designers in the field of second and foreign language teaching.
Applied Linguistics and Language Teacher Education is aimed at applied linguists who are interested in understanding more about the learning of novice teachers in their classes. The 21 studies in this volume provide information on the complexity of novice teachers learning and use of knowledge in a variety of applied linguistics classes such as SLA, Syntax, Pragmatics, Sociolinguistics, Phonetics and Phonology, L2 Reading and Writing, Testing, and Content Based Instruction. These studies were conducted in a variety of contexts, from North and South America to Europe, Asia and Australia, and look at the preparation of teachers of English, Spanish and Chinese. The book also includes a state-of-the-art summary of research on knowledge acquisition and use which provides applied linguists with a solid basis for developing their ideas about their students learning and use of the knowledge presented in their classes.