This is a comprehensive and richly illustrated textbook on the astrophysics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium--the gas and dust, as well as the electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, and magnetic and gravitational fields, present between the stars in a galaxy and also between galaxies themselves. Topics include radiative processes across the electromagnetic spectrum; radiative transfer; ionization; heating and cooling; astrochemistry; interstellar dust; fluid dynamics, including ionization fronts and shock waves; cosmic rays; distribution and evolution of the interstellar medium; and star formation. While it is assumed that the reader has a background in undergraduate-level physics, including some prior exposure to atomic and molecular physics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism, the first six chapters of the book include a review of the basic physics that is used in later chapters. This graduate-level textbook includes references for further reading, and serves as an invaluable resource for working astrophysicists. Essential textbook on the physics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium Based on a course taught by the author for more than twenty years at Princeton University Covers radiative processes, fluid dynamics, cosmic rays, astrochemistry, interstellar dust, and more Discusses the physical state and distribution of the ionized, atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium Reviews diagnostics using emission and absorption lines Features color illustrations and detailed reference materials in appendices Instructor's manual with problems and solutions (available only to teachers)
Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium is a text aimed at graduate students and advanced undergraduates in astronomy and physics; its scope is appropriate to a one-semester course. The text discusses the phases of the interstellar gas, emphasizing the role of heating, cooling, ionization, recombination, and radiative transport. The interaction between interstellar gas and dust is also discussed. In addition to the `classical' study of the interstellar medium, the rapidly developing field of circumgalactic and intergalactic gas is also included. In this text, first in the Ohio State Graduate Astrophysics Series, emphasis is placed on order-of-magnitude calculations and the development of physical insight.
This topical volume examines one of the leading problems in astronomy today--how galaxies cluster in our Universe. This is the first book to describe gravitational theory, computer simulations and observations related to galaxy distribution functions (a general method for measuring the distribution of galaxies and their motions).Key results are derived and the necessary physics provided to ensure the book is self-contained. And throughout, theory, computer simulation and observation are carefully interwoven and critically compared.This clear and authoritative volume is written at a level suitable for graduate students, and will be of key interest to astronomers, cosmologists, physicists and applied statisticians.
Release on 2014-10-28 | by Maurizio Falanga,Tomaso Belloni,Piergiorgio Casella,Marat Gilfanov,Peter Jonker,Andrew King
Author: Maurizio Falanga,Tomaso Belloni,Piergiorgio Casella,Marat Gilfanov,Peter Jonker,Andrew King
Provides a comprehensive summary on the physical models and current theory of black hole accretion, growth and mergers, in both the supermassive and stellar-mass cases. This title reviews in-depth research on accretion on all scales, from galactic binaries to intermediate mass and supermassive black holes. Possible future directions of accretion are also discussed. The following main themes are covered: a historical perspective; physical models of accretion onto black holes of all masses; black hole fundamental parameters; and accretion, jets and outflows. An overview and outlook on the topic is also presented. This volume summarizes the status of the study of astrophysical black hole research and is aimed at astrophysicists and graduate students working in this field. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol 183/1-4, 2014.
This thesis addresses two of the central processes which underpin the formation of galaxies: the formation of stars and the injection of energy into the interstellar medium from supernovae, called feedback. In her work Claudia Lagos has completely overhauled the treatment of these processes in simulations of galaxy formation. Her thesis makes two major breakthroughs, and represents the first major steps forward in these areas in more than a decade. Her work has enabled, for the first time, predictions to be made which can be compared against new observations which probe the neutral gas content of galaxies, opening up a completely novel way to constrain the models. The treatment of feedback from supernovae, and how this removes material from the interstellar medium, is also likely to have a lasting impact on the field. Claudia Lagos Ph.D. thesis was nominated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis 2012.
Volume 3: Mineral Matter in Space, Mantle, Ocean Floor, Biosphere, Environmental Management, and Jewelry
Author: Arnold S. Marfunin
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume of Advanced Mineralogy encompasses six different areas having two features in common: they are related to one of the largest enterprises of the second half of this century; and represent the ultimate and final extension of the concept of mineral matter. - Understanding mineral matter in Space is one of the principal purposes of cosmic exploration. This includes the results of compa rative planetology, lunar epopee, sophisticated meteorite studies (now more than 500 meteorite minerals), discovery of the interstellar mineral dust forming some 60 trillion of earth masses in the Galaxy, and terrestrial impact crater studies. It is possible now to speak of mineralogy of the Universum, and the mineralogical type of the states of matter in the Universe. Direct samples of mantle xenoliths and ultrahigh pressure-tem perature experiments make it possible to consider the mineral ogical composition of the Earth as a whole, including the upper an lower mantle and the Earth's core. Deep ocean drilling programs, a scientific fleet of hundreds of vessels and several submersibles have brought about great dis coveries in the geology, metalogeny, and mineralogy of the ocean floor the largest part of the Earth's surface, in particular revealing new genetic, crystallochemical, and ore types of min eral formation.