Release on 2012-12-06 | by Kenneth A. Kavale,Steven R. Forness
Critical Elements of Diagnosis and Classification
Author: Kenneth A. Kavale,Steven R. Forness
The category of learning disabilities continues to be among the most contentious in special education. Much of the debate and dissent emanates from a lack of understanding about its basic nature. The failure to evolve a comprehensive and unified perspective about the nature of learning disabilities has resulted in the concept being lost. The loss is best illustrated through the failure to answer this seemingly simple question: What is a learning disability? Using historical, empirical, theoretical, conceptual, and philosophical analyses, this volume explores a number of problems and issues facing the field of learning disabilities. The chapters cover historical influences, definitional problems, primary characteristics, assessment practices, theoretical development, major themes, research and measurement models, and long-term outcomes. The goal is to explicate the nature of learning disabilities by analyzing what it was supposed to be, what it has become, and what it might be. A predominant theme running through this text is the necessity for the field of learning disabilities to regain integrity by recapturing its essence.
Prospective and in-service teachers are the intended readers of this book. Teaching involves much more then dispensing knowledge. Teaching is a process of arranging activities that will enable individuals to learn and behave appropriately. The appropriateness of the activities depends on the degree they interact with the status of the targeted individuals. Just as physicians need to know about the nature of the human body and carpenters need to now about the nature of wood, teachers need to know about the nature of people that is related to learning and behavior. Thereby, the focus of this text is the relevant personal characteristics: the intellect, motivation, and sense of self each of which influence learning and behavior. Research findings and models within educational psychology are used to define the relevant human personal characteristics . In order to arrange meaningful activities teachers strive to achieve selected objectives. The text identifies four broad objectives within which specific lesson objectives can be identified. The objectives themselves and more particularly the proposed activities must be oriented around the personal characteristics of the targeted learners. Age, grade level, ethnic background, and gender are insufficient indicators of learner qualifications.. Relevant information for learning are within individual learners as exhibited through behavior. Observations are the key indicators of learner readiness to learn. The text recommends that students begin now to develop skills for identifying the status of learners and classroom conditions through interviews, noting various classroom behaviors, and analyzing the findings by developing portfolios. Small group discussions are encouraged so that students can share skills in analyzing real problems and thereby develop habits and skills for working with colleagues.
The aim of this book is to discuss the fundamental ideas which lie behind the statistical theory of learning and generalization. It considers learning from the general point of view of function estimation based on empirical data. Omitting proofs and technical details, the author concentrates on discussing the main results of learning theory and their connections to fundamental problems in statistics. These include: - the general setting of learning problems and the general model of minimizing the risk functional from empirical data - a comprehensive analysis of the empirical risk minimization principle and shows how this allows for the construction of necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency - non-asymptotic bounds for the risk achieved using the empirical risk minimization principle - principles for controlling the generalization ability of learning machines using small sample sizes - introducing a new type of universal learning machine that controls the generalization ability.
Release on 1993 | by Minnie Louie Johnson Abercrombie
Selections from the Work of M.L.J. Abercrombie
Author: Minnie Louie Johnson Abercrombie
Collects some of the incisive published writings of an educator known for her contributions to the theory and practice of education, in particular, her pioneer research into the use of groups in learning with medical, architectural, and education students. These essays are brief, devoid of jargon, and philosophically provocative. Distributed by Taylor and Francis. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Contents: Meaning, Nature and Scope of Psychology, Psychology: Various Methods, Development and Growth, Mental or Cognitive Development, Emotional Development, Physical Development and Growth, Social Development, Meaning, Nature and Functions of Educational Psychology, Concept and Nature of Learning, Learning: Various Theories, Influencing Factors, Tactics of Motivation, Development Task at Childhood Stage, Adolescents Problems, Nature and Development of Personality, Nature and Theories of Intelligence.