What was crime in ancient Rome? Was it defined by law or social attitudes? How did damage to the individual differ from offences against the community as a whole? This book explores competing legal and extra-legal discourses in a number of areas, including theft, official malpractice, treason, sexual misconduct, crimes of violence, homicide, magic and perceptions of deviance. It argues that court practice was responsive to social change, despite the ingrained conservatism of the legal tradition, and that judges and litigants were in part responsible for the harsher operation of justice in Late Antiquity. Consideration is also given to how attitudes to crime were shaped not only by legal experts but also by the rhetorical education and practices of advocates, and by popular and even elite indifference to the finer points of law.
Although the Romans lived in a society very different from ours, they were like us in fearing crime and in hoping to control it by means of the law. Ordinary citizens wanted protection from muggers in the streets or thieves at the public baths. They demanded laws to punish officials who abused power or embezzled public monies. Even emperors, who feared plotters and wanted to repress subversive ideas and doctrines, looked to the law for protection. In the first book in English to focus on the substantive criminal law of ancient Rome, O. F. Robinson offers a lively study of an essential aspect of Roman life and identity. Robinson begins with a discussion of the framework within which the law operated and the nature of criminal responsibility. She looks at the criminal law of Rome as it was established in the late Republic under Sulla's system of standing jury-courts. Grouping offenses functionally into five chapters, she examines crimes committed for gain, crimes involving violence, sexual offenses, offenses against the state, and offenses against the due ordering of society.
An interdisciplinary, edited collection on social science methodologies for approaching Roman legal sources. Roman law as a field of study is rapidly evolving to reflect new perspectives and approaches in research. Scholars who work on the subject are i
Provides new insights into Rome's collapse, challenging long-held assumptions that Theoderic's reign was a golden age for Italy.
Much critical scholarship has detailed the punitive effects of accusations that lead to criminalization. Less well documented is the founding role that accusation plays in creating potential criminals. In an attempt at redress, this collection foregrounds how ideas and rituals of accusation initiate criminalization processes. It offers various perspectives on the mechanisms by which legal persons come to be identified as suitable subjects for criminal justice arenas. By analyzing how criminal accusation operates in theoretical, historical, socio-legal, criminological, political, cultural, and procedural realms, this book launches an important new field of inquiry.
What are states but large bandit bands, and what are bandit bands but small states? So asked St Augustine, reflecting on the late Roman world. Here nine original studies, by historians of Greece and Rome, explore the activities and the images of ancient criminals, comparing them closely and provocatively with the Greek and Roman governments which the criminals challenged.
The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity offers an innovative overview of a period (c. 300-700 CE) that has become increasingly central to scholarly debates over the history of western and Middle Eastern civilizations. This volume covers such pivotal events as the fall of Rome, the rise of Christianity, the origins of Islam, and the early formation of Byzantium and the European Middle Ages. These events are set in the context of widespread literary, artistic, cultural, and religious change during the period. The geographical scope of this Handbook is unparalleled among comparable surveys of Late Antiquity; Arabia, Egypt, Central Asia, and the Balkans all receive dedicated treatments, while the scope extends to the western kingdoms, and North Africa in the West. Furthermore, from economic theory and slavery to Greek and Latin poetry, Syriac and Coptic literature, sites of religious devotion, and many others, this Handbook covers a wide range of topics that will appeal to scholars from a diverse array of disciplines. The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity engages the perennially valuable questions about the end of the ancient world and the beginning of the medieval, while providing a much-needed touchstone for the study of Late Antiquity itself.
Rome was the law-giver for much of the modern world. She was also the greatest military power of antiquity, operating her military organization with remarkable efficiency and effectiveness throughout most of the then-known world. In view of the importance of both the legal and military aspects of the Roman Empire, an account of their combination in a system of disciplinary control for the Roman armies is of considerable significance to historians in both fields—and, in fact, to scholars in general. In Roman Military Law, C. E. Brand describes this system of control. Since a characterization of such a system can be made most meaningful only against a background of Roman constitutional government and in the light of ideologies current at the time, Brand follows his initial “Note on Sources” with a sketch of the contemporary Roman scene. This first section includes a discussion of the Roman constitution and an examination of Roman criminal law. The history of Rome, as a republic, principate, and empire, extended over a period of a thousand years, so any attempt to represent a generalized picture must be essentially a matter of extraction and condensation from the voluminous literature of the whole era. Nevertheless, from the fantastic evolution that is the history of Rome, Brand has been able to construct a more or less static historical mosaic that may be considered typically “Roman.” This comes into sharpest focus during the period of the Punic Wars, when the city and its people were most intensely Roman. The picture of the Roman armies is set into this basic framework, in chapters dealing with military organization, disciplinary organization, religion and discipline, and offenses and punishments. The final section of the book considers briefly the vast changes in Roman institutions that came about under the armies of the Empire, and then concludes with the Latin text and an English translation of the only known code of Roman military justice, promulgated sometime during the later Empire, preserved in Byzantine literature, and handed down to medieval times in Latin translations of Byzantine Greek law, which it has heretofore been confused.
Roman public and private law regulated many aspects of life in Antiquity. The legal sources, statutes, juristic opinions, textbooks, documents and reports preserve a wealth of information that illuminates Roman society and economy. However, the use of this kind of evidence can be extremely difficult. With this volume, classicists, historians, and legal scholars propose various ways to integrate the legal evidence with other sources for ancient social and economic history. Speculum Iuris examines the complex relationship between law and social practice from the particular angle of Roman legislation and jurisprudence as conditioned by or reacting to a specific social, economic, and political context. Using various strategies, the editors and contributors mine a huge body of texts to study attitudes and behaviors of the Roman upper class, whose social concerns are reflected in the development of legal rules. A close reading of juristic opinions and Republican or imperial legislation allows the contributors to find rationales behind rules and decisions in order to explain practices and mentalities of the elite within a larger social context. This book demonstrates clearly that Roman law was not divorced from the realities of daily life, even if some jurists may have been working with purely hypothetical cases. Speculum Iuris provides a multidisciplinary approach to the question of the interplay of legal and social forces in the Roman world. As such, it will be a helpful study for general classicists and ancient historians, as well as for legal historians, social historians, economic historians, sociologists, and cultural anthropologists. Jean-Jacques Aubert is Professor of Latin Language and Literature, University of Neuchtel, Switzerland. Boudewijn Sirks is Professor of the History of Ancient Law, the History of European Private Law, and German Civil Law, Institute for the History of Law, Germany.
Law was central to the ancient Roman conception of themselves and their empire. Yet what happened to Roman law and the position it occupied ideologically during the turbulent years of the Iconoclast era, c.680-850, is seldom explored and little understood. This volume uses Roman law and canon law to chart the various responses to these changing times - especially the rise of Islam, from Justinian II's Christocentric monarchy to the Old Testament-inspired Isauriandynasty - and the transformation from the late antique Roman Empire to medieval Byzantium.
This book examines the concept of individual criminal responsibility for serious violations of international law, i.e. aggression, genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Such crimes are rarely committed by single individuals. Rather, international crimes generally connote a plurality of offenders, particularly in the execution of the crimes, which are often orchestrated and masterminded by individuals behind the scene of the crimes who can be termed 'intellectual perpetrators'. For a determination of individual guilt and responsibility, a fair assessment of the mutual relationships between those persons is indispensable. By setting out how to understand and apply concepts such as joint criminal enterprise, superior responsibility, duress, and the defence of superior orders, this work provides a framework for that assessment. It does so by bringing to light the roots of these concepts, which lie not merely in earlier phases of development of international criminal law but also in domestic law and legal doctrine. The book also critically reflects on how criminal responsibility has been developed in the case law of international criminal tribunals and courts. It thus illuminates and analyses the rules on individual responsibility in international law.
Eight previous iterations of this text have proven to be highly regarded and considered the definitive training guide and instructional text for first-line security officers in both the private and public sectors. The material included in the newest version covers all the subjects essential to the training of protection officers. This valuable resource and its predecessors have been utilized worldwide by the International Foundation for Protection Officers since 1988, as the core curriculum for the Certified Protection Officer (CPO) Program. The Professional Protection Officer: Practical Security Strategies and Emerging Trends provides critical updates and fresh guidance, as well as diagrams and illustrations; all have been tailored to the training and certification needs of today’s protection professionals. Offers trainers and trainees all new learning aids designed to reflect the most current information and to support and reinforce professional development Written by a cross-disciplinary contributor team consisting of top experts in their respective fields
Living Through History is a complete Key Stage 3 course which brings out the exciting events in history. The course is available in two different editions, Core and Foundation. Every core title in the series has a parallel Foundation edition. Each Evaluation Pack includes the Assessment and Resource Pack and a free compendium volume student book. The resource packs include a variety of tasks which students should find interesting and enjoyable. They also include differentiated exercises to provide support for less able students and challenging work for more able students. Assessment exercises for the compulsory study units aim to help teachers monitor progress through NC levels.
Bestselling COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS, 4/e delivers a comprehensive--and intriguing--analysis comparing the various criminal justice systems throughout the world. Thoroughly revised and up to date, the Fourth Edition reflects the latest trends, issues, and information on international criminal justice, transnational organized crime and corruption, terrorism, and international juvenile justice. This proven text's unique topical approach examines important aspects of each type of justice system--common law, civil law, socialist law, and sacred (Islamic) law--which gives students a more solid understanding of the similarities and differences of each system. The authors use six model countries--China, England, France, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia--to illustrate the different types of law and justice systems in the context of specific countries, as well as the historical, political, economic, social, and cultural influences on each system. The book is packed with relevant examples, emphasizes critical thinking skills throughout, and includes an assortment of innovative learning tools to maximize student success. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
This unique publication offers a complete history of Roman law, from its early beginnings through to its resurgence in Europe where it was widely applied until the eighteenth century. Besides a detailed overview of the sources of Roman law, the book also includes sections on private and criminal law and procedure, with special attention given to those aspects of Roman law that have particular importance to today's lawyer. The last three chapters of the book offer an overview of the history of Roman law from the early Middle Ages to modern times and illustrate the way in which Roman law furnished the basis of contemporary civil law systems. In this part, special attention is given to the factors that warranted the revival and subsequent reception of Roman law as the ‘common law’ of Continental Europe. Combining the perspectives of legal history with those of social and political history, the book can be profitably read by students and scholars, as well as by general readers with an interest in ancient and early European legal history. The civil law tradition is the oldest legal tradition in the world today, embracing many legal systems currently in force in Continental Europe, Latin America and other parts of the world. Despite the considerable differences in the substantive laws of civil law countries, a fundamental unity exists between them. The most obvious element of unity is the fact that the civil law systems are all derived from the same sources and their legal institutions are classified in accordance with a commonly accepted scheme existing prior to their own development, which they adopted and adapted at some stage in their history. Roman law is both in point of time and range of influence the first catalyst in the evolution of the civil law tradition.