The Killer Strain

Anthrax and a Government Exposed

The Killer Strain

A lethal germ is unleashed in the U.S. mail. A chain of letters spreads terror from Florida to Washington, D.C., from New York to Connecticut, from the halls of Congress to the assembly lines of the U.S. Postal Service. Five people die, and ten thousand more line up for antibiotics to protect against exposure. The government, already outsmarted by the terrorist hijackers of 9/11, leaves its workers vulnerable and a diabolical killer on the loose. Based on hundreds of hours of interviews and a review of thousands of pages of government documents, The Killer Strain is the definitive account of the year in which bioterrorism became a reality in the United States. Revealing the little-known victims and unsung heroes in the anthrax debacle, investigative reporter Marilyn Thompson also examines the FBI's slow-paced investigation of the crimes and the unprecedented scientific challenges posed by the case. The Killer Strain, more than just a thrilling read, is also a clarion wake-up call. It shows how billions of dollars and a decade of elaborate bioterror dress rehearsals meant nothing in the face of a real attack -- and how we may still be at risk.

Yeasts in Natural Ecosystems: Ecology

Yeasts in Natural Ecosystems: Ecology

This book presents an up-to-date review of the ecology of yeast communities in natural ecosystems. It focuses on their biological interactions, including mutualism, parasitism, commensalism and antagonistic interactions, and is closely connected with the volume Yeasts in Natural Ecosystems: Diversity by the same editors. Yeasts are the smallest eukaryotic organisms successfully growing under a wide range of environmental conditions. They constantly modify the environment through their own metabolic activities. Although yeasts are among the earlier colonizers of nutrient-rich substrates, their role in ecosystem processes is not limited to the consumption and transformation of simple sugars. They also engage in close relationships with animals, plants and other fungi in the environment as mutualists, competitors, parasites and pathogens. This book reviews the diversity of biological interactions and roles of yeasts in ecosystems and summarises recent concepts and tools developed in community ecology. All of the chapters were written by leading international yeast research experts, and will appeal to researchers and advanced students in the field of microbial ecology.

Handbook of Enology, Volume 1

The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications

Handbook of Enology, Volume 1

The "Microbiology" volume of the new revised and updated Handbook of Enology focuses on the vinification process. It describes how yeasts work and how they can be influenced to achieve better results. It continues to look at the metabolism of lactic acid bacterias and of acetic acid bacterias, and again, how can they be treated to avoid disasters in the winemaking process and how to achieve optimal results. The last chapters in the book deal with the use of sulfur-dioxide, the grape and its maturation process, harvest and pre-fermentation treatment, and the basis of red, white and speciality wine making. The result is the ultimate text and reference on the science and technology of the vinification process: understanding and dealing with yeasts and bacterias involved in the transformation from grape to wine. A must for all serious students and practitioners involved in winemaking.

Handbook of Brewing

Handbook of Brewing

Offers detailed studies of beer and its production as well as its commercial and economic aspects. All beverages worldwide which are beer-like in character and alcoholic content are reviewed. The book delineates over 900 chemical compounds that have been identified in beers, pinpoints their sources, gives concentration ranges, and examines their influence on beer quality. This work is intended for brewing, cereal and food chemists and biochemists; composition, nutrition, biochemical, food and quality assurance and control engineers; nutritionists; food biologists and technologists; microbiologists; toxicologists; and upper level undergraduate and continuing-education students in these disciplines.

Yeasts in Natural and Artificial Habitats

Yeasts in Natural and Artificial Habitats

A Guide to the World of the Yeasts J. F. T. Spencer and D. M. Spencert As the well-known authority on yeasts, the late Professor Rose, frequently pointed out, it is impossible for one person to present, in a single volume, the details of the life, composiotion, habitats, relationships, and actual and potential uses to man kind of the 500 (at last count) known species of yeasts. This book confirms the truth of this statement. However, our aim is actually more modest than that, and this book is an attempt to introduce the general reader, and possibly some inter ested specialists, to the lives of the yeasts in their natural and more artificial habitats, their use by human beings, and to give some idea of the wonderfully complex activities within the yeast cell, the characteristics of the metabolism and molecular biology of yeasts, and the applications of these characteristics to life in the present-dayworld ofhuman existence. The book proceeds from a brief chapter on what is and is not known of the origins and early history of the yeasts, through a description of their classification, relationships, habitats and general life style, their external morphology and internal structures and mechanisms within their cells, the regulatory mechanisms controlling processes such as signal transmis sion, mating, cell fusion, and many others.

Yeast technology

Yeast technology

Yeasts are the active agents responsible for three of our most important foods - bread, wine, and beer - and for the almost universally used mind/ personality-altering drug, ethanol. Anthropologists have suggested that it was the production of ethanol that motivated primitive people to settle down and become farmers. The Earth is thought to be about 4. 5 billion years old. Fossil microorganisms have been found in Earth rock 3. 3 to 3. 5 billion years old. Microbes have been on Earth for that length of time carrying out their principal task of recycling organic matter as they still do today. Yeasts have most likely been on Earth for at least 2 billion years before humans arrived, and they playa key role in the conversion of sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Early humans had no concept of either microorganisms or fermentation, yet the earliest historical records indicate that by 6000 B. C. they knew how to make bread, beer, and wine. Earliest humans were foragers who col lected and ate leaves, tubers, fruits, berries, nuts, and cereal seeds most of the day much as apes do today in the wild. Crushed fruits readily undergo natural fermentation by indigenous yeasts, and moist seeds germinate and develop amylases that produce fermentable sugars. Honey, the first con centrated sweet known to humans, also spontaneously ferments to alcohol if it is by chance diluted with rainwater. Thus, yeasts and other microbes have had a long history of 2 to 3.

Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts

Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts

Because yeasts are capable of growing in a wide range of foods, their metabolic activities can cause significant economic losses in the food industry. Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts is the first guide to tackle this important subject. This easy-to-understand book describes in detail the ecology and physiology of spoilage yeasts. It explores the influence of ecological factors on growth, metabolic activities, survival, and death of yeasts in food. It also provides techniques for enumeration and identification of commonly encountered yeasts. Building upon this foundation, Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts presents strategies for food preservation based on controlling or killing spoilage yeasts and highlights information useful for monitoring the effectiveness of processing and storage technologies. This book is of tremendous practical value for anyone working in the food industry or interested in the mycological dimension of food spoilage. Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts is a long-overdue, essential resource.

Brewing Microbiology

Brewing Microbiology

Much has happened in the brewing industry since the last edition of this book was published in 1996. In particular, there has been substantial con solidation of larger brewing companies as major multinational concerns, and at the other end of the spectrum the microbrewing scene in various parts of the world has become established as a sustainable enterprise. For those involved in the scientific and technical aspects of fermented bever age production the changes have been no less daunting. The complete genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined and studies are underway in numerous laboratories throughout the world to unravel the expression of the genome (transcriptomics and proteomics) and understand exactly "how a yeast works. " This will undoubtedly con tribute to our understanding of yeast fermentation and flavor generation in a revolutionary way because it will enable the simultaneous monitor ing of all genes in the organism during the fermentation. In Chapters 2 and 3 of this volume Colin Slaughter and John Hammond bring the reader up-to-date in this rapidly moving area and cover the remarkable achievements of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. lain Campbell has also revised the systematics of culture and wild yeasts in Chapter 7. The other major technical change since the last edition of this book is the introduction of molecular characterization and detection of microor ganisms based largely, but not exclusively, on the polymerase chain reac tion (PCR) for amplification of specific DNA fragments.

Progress in Botany

Progress in Botany

With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on genetics, cell biology, and vegetation science.