EU Competition Law

Text, Cases, and Materials

EU Competition Law

This comprehensive study and revision guide provides a selection of the most relevant EU legislation, extracts from the leading EU competition cases, and a selection of critical academic pespectives, setting out objectives and placing them in context.

EC Competition Law

Text, Cases, and Materials

EC Competition Law

Ideal for students taking a course on competition law in its European context, this book guides students through a wide range of carefully selected cases and materials with exceptional analysis and comment. The selection of writings has been chosen to present the most important perspectives onthe subject as well as the broader socio-economic context of EC competition law.This third edition has been fully updated with all the recent developments within EC Competition Law since 2004, including coverage of the review of Article 82 and the green paper on damages, as well as further information on US anti-trust law. Each chapter now begins with a 'central issues'section which helps students to focus and direct their learning. Editions are kept up-to-date via an accompanying Online Resource Centre which also contains relevant weblinks and material including an additional chapter on State Aids.Combining the strengths of a modern textbook and traditional materials book, Cases and Materials on EC Competition Law provides a wide-ranging and thorough guide to the study of Competition Law, enabling students to engage with both legal and economic aspects and making it ideal for both under andpostgraduate courses on EC Competition Law.

The Boundaries of EC Competition Law

The Scope of Article 81

The Boundaries of EC Competition Law

This monograph addresses two problems surrounding the interpretation and application of Article 81 of the EC Treaty - what is competition and how does Article 81 ensure that competition is protected. After over 40 years of application and a period of modernisation, decentralisation, and reflection, it is possible to understand Article 81 and what it seeks to achieve. The monograph's aim is to reveal the intellectual order and rational structure underlying the law so as to enable the reader to understand Article 81 in a clear and rigorous manner. This is done by breaking Article 81 down into its constituent elements and examining the function that each element serves. Arguing that jurisdiction rests on a public/private distinction, both the substantive and the justificatory rules are cast to generate obligations appropriate for private actors to perform. Actors and activities falling within the scope of Article 81 are subject to the substantive element prohibiting contrived reductions in output. Since output reduction can co-exist with cost reduction/innovation, and that these latter features are desirable, cost reduction and innovation operate to justify infringement of the substantive obligation. Thus this monograph argues that output, cost and innovation are the only legitimate issues in an Article 81 analysis. It is in this sense that the monograph is concerned with the boundaries of Article 81 EC.

The Evolution of European Competition Law

Whose Regulation, Which Competition?

The Evolution of European Competition Law

Professor Ullrich is thoughtful and attracted star scholars from many countries, so the papers and discussion are provocative and introduce recent economic thinking, although many are written by lawyers. . . The text is lucid and interesting, the thought innovative and anyone seriously interested in competition policy should read these papers and the comments with pleasure. Valentine Korah, World Competition This collection of papers and comments deserves to be widely read, and it should appeal to academics and practitioners alike. The great mix of topics and the variety of views offered make this a very stimulating contribution to the discussion of the new paradigm of EC competition law, the more economic approach, and its implications for the application and interpretation of the various EU antitrust rules. Thomas Eilmansberger, European Law Journal The editor should be congratulated for bringing together this diverse group of scholars whose spirited disagreements remind one of the many challenges faced in exploring the role and function of competition law. Giorgio Monti, European Review of Contract Law With contributions from leading scholars from all over Europe and the US, this book covers the major areas of substantive competition law from an evolutionary perspective. The leitmotiv of the book has been to assess the dividing line between safeguarding and regulating competition, which it does by reviewing the following subjects: foundations of competition policy in the EU and the US strategic competition policy the evolution of European competition law from a national (Italian) perspective the block exemption of vertical agreements after four years the new Technology Transfer Block Exemption cooperative networking mergers in the media sector abuse of market power concepts of competition in sector specific regulation competition, regulation and systems coherence efficiency claims in EU competition law and sector specific regulation. The Evolution of European Competition Law will be of great interest to lawyers, economists, academics, judges and public officials working in the fields of competition law and policy.

Market Design Powers of the European Commission?

Remedies under Articles 7 and 9 Regulation 1/03

Market Design Powers of the European Commission?

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the remedies practice the European Commission has adopted on the basis of articles 7 and 9 of regulation 1/03. Using article 7 as a normative benchmark, it shows that most of the criticism levelled at the Commission's article 9 decisions and the Alrosa judgment of the CJEU is not justified, since critics tend to over-state both the rigour of article 7 and the laxness of article 9. Remaining inconsistencies between the commitment practice and the standards for infringement decisions can, it is submitted, be justified by the consensual nature of commitment decisions and their underlying goal of procedural economy. Moreover, it is suggested that too little importance is generally assigned to the beneficial effect which commitments bring about by providing for precise and enforceable obligations without sacrificing the concerned undertakings’ freedom to choose how to put the infringement to an end. Adopting a case-oriented approach, this study provides valuable insights for academics and practitioners alike.

Grain Subsidies in Ukraine

The Role of WTO Law and the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement

Grain Subsidies in Ukraine

Grain Subsidies in Ukraine is the first attempt to examine impact of international trade law on Ukrainian policies in the cereals sector. The author focuses on the role of WTO law and the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement in force since 2016.

Intellectual Property and Competition Law

Intellectual Property and Competition Law

Inevitably, every marketed product or service can always be located at the intersection of intellectual property law and competition law, a nexus rife with potential problems throughout the ‘life’ of an intellectual property (IP) right. This important book is the first to focus in depth on this intersection in the European context, masterfully elucidating the consequences for IP rights owners from the right’s inception to its transfer, sale, or demise. The authors describes and analyses the following topics and more in detail: • characteristics, purpose and theoretical justifications of IP rights; • obtaining, maintaining, and exploiting an IP right; • effects of provisions of European competition law regarding cartels, block exemptions, abuse of dominant position, free movement of goods, and merger control; • competition between originator companies and generic companies; • licensing, especially the problem of refusal to grant a license; and • enforcement of an IP right. The book analyses all major cases affecting aspects of the intersection, supported by an examination of the historical background and political influence concerning the two areas of European law. There are also special chapters on the prominent and influential national legal systems of Germany, the United States, China, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. An annex provides texts of the major antitrust regulations dealing with European IP rights. As a ‘biography’ of IP rights focusing on areas of entanglement with European competition law, this book is without peer. Its clear-sighted view of the status quo and emerging trends in the two fields will be of immeasurable value to practitioners, policymakers, and academics dealing with issues at the intersection of intellectual property law and competition law in Europe and elsewhere.

European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2013

European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2013

Part one of Volume 4 (2013) of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law offers a special focus on recent developments in international competition policy and law. International competition law has only begun to emerge as a distinct subfield of international economic law in recent years, even though international agreements on competition co-operation date back to the 1970s. Competition law became a prominent subject of political and academic debates in the late 1990s when competition and trade were discussed as one of the Singapore issues in the WTO. Today, international competition law is a complex and multi-layered system of rules and principles encompassing not only the external application of domestic competition law and traditional bilateral co-operation agreements, but also competition provisions in regional trade agreements and non-binding guidelines and standards. Furthermore, the relevance of competition law for developing countries and the relationship between competition law and public services are the subject of heated debates. The contributions to this volume reflect the growing diversity of the issues and elements of international competition law. Part two presents analytical reports on the developments of the regional integration processes in North America, Central Africa and Southeast Asia as well as on the treaty practice of the European Union. Part three covers the legal and political developments in major international organizations that deal with international economic law, namely the IMF, WCO, WTO, WIPO, ICSID and UNCTAD. Lastly, part four offers book reviews of recent works in the field of international economic law.

The Concept of Abuse in EU Competition Law

Law and Economic Approaches

The Concept of Abuse in EU Competition Law

The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and, coupled with the current state of economics in this area, raises an important question of legitimacy. Using law and economic approaches, this book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, this book establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself, and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about regarding both objectives and scope. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as the potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.

A comparative analysis of EU and US transnational mergers regulation

A comparative analysis of EU and US transnational mergers regulation

Document from the year 2017 in the subject Law - Civil / Private / Trade / Anti Trust Law / Business Law, grade: A, , language: English, abstract: The major problem associated with the regulation of transnational mergers, which affect several national markets, is the allocation of jurisdiction. Each country concerned may wish to exert jurisdiction and apply its national competition law to regulate the anti-competitive effects a merger may have in its territory. However, this approach may lead to risks of inconsistent decisions regarding the legality of mergers. Indeed, the national competition laws applied by the regulating authorities may diverge in several aspects, which raise the likelihood of inconsistency. The authors advocates the creation of an international merger control framework (IMCF) for the regulation of transnational mergers. This framework will rest on an informal and a formal pillar. The former includes non-legally binding competition principles. Consistency of these principles with the concepts of legitimacy and efficiency, as well as the presence of peer reviews and assistance programmes, should lower the risk of non-implementation. The formal pillar includes bilateral cooperation agreements which apply to merger affecting the countries which have concluded the agreements. As essential pre-condition for the application of bilateral agreements, the level of cooperation achieved by such agreements should be at least equal to that ensured by the informal pillar. The last part of the study addresses and examines the long and complex processes in merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions. M&A arbitration faces certain difficulties during the transaction. Such difficulties the author seeks to underline. Two main problems of arbitration in M&A transactions, particullarly, have been covered. Firstly, the problem of consent in consolidation of parallel proceedings during M&A transactions, and, secondly parties' consent that validate arbitration agreements/clauses in “assignment” or “succession” after M&A transactions have been completed. The author also tries to clarify the content of consent of parties to a transaction. Finally, a criticism of parallel proceedings is enhanced.