"There are different ways to explaining economic growth in China. In this thesis, the author uses patent statistics in order to demonstrate how China generates its tremendously high and stable growth rates. Based on the endogenous growth theory, fields of actions are identified that account for China's rising patent activities. In addition to an intensification of research and development efforts, China benefits from FDI inflows as well as from its innovation friendly policy. In the end, the described development is embedded in a paten friendly environment, which shows not only China's efforts for attracting foreign investors but also the importance of providing incentives for domestic firms. As a result, Chinese's firms become more and more innovative in certain sectors"--Executive summary.
Although both infrastructure and innovation play an important role in fostering a country’s economic growth, discussion in the literature about how the two are connected is limited. This paper examines the impact of road density on firm innovation in China using a matched patent database at the firm level and road information at the city level. Regional variation in the difficulty of constructing roads is used as an instrumental variable to address the potential endogeneity problem of the road variable. The empirical results show that a 10 percent improvement in road density increases the average number of approved patents per firm by 0.71 percent. Road development spurs innovation by enlarging market size and facilitating knowledge spillover.
This book is an insightful text looking at sustainable innovation and the emerging fourth sector, i.e. hybrid organizations, through an interdisciplinary approach. The book illuminates what hybrid organizations are and how they generate new ways of creating blended value to secure the well-being of future generations and preservation of ecological services. The book also discusses how sustainable innovation may offer creative solutions to societal issues, the sharing economy and the circular economy. This book will appeal to those taking MBA and EMBA programmes, and those with an interest in creating sustainable business and innovation solutions.
China’s efforts in searching for new sources of growth are increasingly pressing given the persistence of the growth slowdown in recent years. This year’s book elucidates key present macroeconomic challenges facing China’s economy in 2017, and the impacts and readiness of human capital, innovation and technological change in affecting the development of China’s economy. The book explores the development of human capital as the foundations of China’s push into more advanced growth frontiers. It also explores the progress of productivity improvement in becoming the primary mechanism by which China can sustain economic growth, and explains the importance of China’s human capital investments to success on this front. The book demonstrates that technical change is a major contributor to productivity growth; and that invention and innovation are increasingly driving technical change but so far lumpily across regions, sectors and invention motivations. Included are chapters providing an update on reform and macroeconomic development, educational inequality, the role of intangibles in determining China’s economic growth, and China’s progress in transitioning towards being an innovative country. The book also covers the regional dimension of innovation and technological progress by sector: in agricultural productivity, renewable energy and financial markets. Chapters on trade, investment, regional cooperation and foreign aid explore further the mechanisms through which technological change and innovative activities are emerging locally and internationally.
This is the first English book that presents a professional analysis of the recent dynamic movement of the Chinese economy by focusing on the Yangtze River Delta region, which is the main engine of the Chinese economy. The impact of the international financial crisis on China’s economic development requires a change from the first wave of economic globalization oriented toward exports to the second wave of economic globalization characterized by expanding domestic demand. Taking this economic aspect into consideration, the following are proposed in this book: 1) expansion of the level of openness in the process of increasing domestic demand means shifting the industrial focus from manufacturing to the service industry; 2) promotion of the globalization of local services should be based on the globalization of local manufacturing; 3) the Yangtze River Delta region should aim at its own strategic positioning under new, changed circumstances and should achieve modernization in advance with the concept of integrative development; 4) Establishment of a support system is essential meanwhile for this area to develop an innovative economy and to promote the transition from manufacturing to promoting emerging industries, including a modern service industry. The book has an underlying concept, namely, that the key to economic transformation is to start the development of modern services and that only by transforming the development pattern of the service industry can the transition and upgrade of the economy be effectively achieved. For this purpose further urbanization and advancing the transformation from low-tech to high-tech industries by the effective development of industrial clusters is advocated. To ensure that these conclusions are based on a solid analysis, the authors draw heavily upon empirical analyses employing modern econometric methods and make use of economic theories such as endogenous growth theory and spatial economic theory.
The need for informed and effective insights into key concepts and models of regional development and growth, from an endogenous growth perspective, has risen over the past decade. These recent advances address in particular local and regional assets and characteristics comprising inter alia creativity, knowledge, innovation forces and entrepreneurship. Access to and exploitation of these modern forms of human and social capital are of paramount importance for the dynamic regional economic environment in a city or region. This volume offers an overview and critical treatment of the spatial-economic roots, opportunities and impacts of new growth strategies, mainly from an evidence-based perspective. In the various contributions to this volume, relevant findings and strategic options are interpreted and discussed from both an analytical and a policy perspective to help cultivate creativity, human capital development and innovation as well as entrepreneurial activity, with a view to exploit the drivers of economic development, in order to strengthen the competitive edge of cities and regions.
What drives innovation and entrepreneurship in India, China, and the United States? Our data-rich and evidence-based exploration of relationships among innovation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth yields theoretical models of economic growth in the context of macroeconomic factors. Because we know far too little about the key characteristics of Chinese and Indian entrepreneurs and the ways they innovate, our balanced, systematic comparison of entrepreneurship and innovation results in a new approach to looking at economic growth that can be used to model empirical data from other countries. The importance of innovation and entrepreneurship to any economy has been recognized since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter. Our analysis of the major factors that affect innovation and entrepreneurship in these three parts of the world – US, China and India –provides a comprehensive view of their effects and their likely futures. Looks at elements important for innovation and entrepreneurship and compares them against each other within the three countries Places theoretical modeling of economic growth in the context of the overall macroeconomic factors Explores questions about the relationships among innovation, entrepreneurship and economic growth in China, India and the US
The rising importance of China and its impact on the world economy has attracted massive interest worldwide. This book examines a wide range of issues related to China and its relationship with the world economy, focusing on its succesful development experiences and how its rise may affect the rest of the world in the coming decades.
A comprehensive description of China’s innovation system through in-depth analysis of its transformation in the past two decades. The most recent developments are included in order to summarize Chinese experience of reforming its industry and academy sector to meet the challenge of innovation. The discussion is not only centred on the policy and its impact, but goes further to find the logic behind the actions. The book also examines the strengths and weaknesses of China’s innovation system in the global context. The book helps R&D managers, business professionals and academics grasp an understanding of the new changes in China from the perspective of innovation. It also facilitates policy makers and academics to understand the Chinese experience of building a dynamic and innovative economy. Comprehensive coverage of China’s innovation using the national innovation system approach Includes up-to-date information regarding data, policy reforms and policy impact Original comparative discussion of China’s innovation practice in the global context
This book provides detailed empirical analysis of countries in Asia to examine various dynamic models that incorporate the impact of technology and innovations on the industry evolution and overall economic growth.
The Information and Technology Agreement (ITA) was finalised at the first WTO Ministerial Conference, in Singapore, in 1996, committing its participants to completely eliminate duties on certain information technology products. In its 15 years, the ITA has promoted affordable access to a wide range of technologies, encouraging closer cooperation between developed and developing countries. As production networks become increasingly global, the ITA will continue to facilitate the shift from products made in a specific country to "Made in the World". To mark the 15th anniversary of the ITA, this publication charts the political and technical obstacles which were overcome during the creation of the Agreement and the issues which still need to be resolved. It charts the establishment of the ITA Committee and how the Agreement is implemented, and investigates the impact the ITA has had on trade liberalisation and innovation. The publication also examines the effect information technology has had on global production networks and what this means for developing countries and the ITA.
This text explores hi-tech industry policy in China, R & D activity, the emergance of industrial clusters, the R & D activities of multinational corporations in China and the prospect of commercialization of hi-tech achievements, with the aim of producing an analysis of the development of the hi-tech sector.
China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led. Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the 'rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D projects and 'carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields.
Based on the latest information and indicators in science and innovation, the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2012 reviews key trends in STI policies and performance in OECD countries and major emerging economies, and across a number of thematic areas.
The way in which energy is governed in China is driving its rising level of carbon dioxide emissions. This book analyses the nature of energy governance in China by combining ideas relating to transition management with institutionalist theories, which helps to identify factors which assist or constrain the country's path to a low-carbon economy.
South Africa and the Global Hydrogen Economy is the publication of a MISTRA research project on the use of strategic minerals in the global putative hydrogen economy. The book highlights the global significance of platinum group metals (PGM) and explores the strategic opportunities that arise out of South Africa's endowment of these strategic resources. From their extraction to their applications in fuel cells, what options are available for the country, the region and the world to better leverage this endowment towards supporting growth and development objectives? In view of their expanding range of applications, do PGM need the hydrogen economy? Conversely, does the hydrogen economy need PGM? Addressed to all industry stakeholders, including those in the public and private sectors, the options explored in this book are based on a thorough analysis of the global dynamics that should inform policy and business models related to PGM.