Cognitive Systems Engineering

Cognitive Systems Engineering

Powerful information technologies and the complex support systems they engender are evolving faster than people’s ability to adjust to them. In the workplace, this leads to troublesome task performance, added stress on users, increased organizational inefficiency, and, in some cases, a heightened risk of wide-scale .disaster. In the marketplace, it makes for consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, traditional human-computer interaction (HCI) and system design (SD) solutions to this dilemma have proven woefully inadequate. What is needed is a fresh multidisciplinary approach offering a broader, more dynamic framework for assessing needs and designing usable, efficient systems. Taking modeling concepts from engineering, psychology, cognitive science, information science, and computer science, cognitive systems engineering (CSE) provides such a framework. This book is the first comprehensive guide to the emerging new field of CSE. Providing equal parts theory and practice, it is based on the authors’ many years of experience with work systems in a wide range of work domains, including process control, manufacturing, hospitals, and libraries. Throughout, the emphasis is on powerful analytical techniques that enhance the systems designer’s ability to see the "big picture," and to design for all crucial aspects of human-work interaction. Applicable to highly structured technical systems such as process plants, as well as less structured user-driven systems like libraries, these analytical techniques form the basis for the evaluation and design guidelines that make up the bulk of this book. And since the proof is in the pudding, the authors provide a chapter-length case history in which they demonstrate the success of their approach when applied to a full-scale software design project. The project, a retrieval system for public libraries, is described in detail, from field studies to concept validation experiments, and, of course, the empirical evaluation of the system while in use by the library users and personnel. Computer-based information systems are rapidly becoming a fundamental part of the human landscape. How that landscape evolves over the next decade or so, whether it becomes a hostile one or one that generously supports the needs of future generations, is in the hands of all those involved with the study and design of information systems.

Joint Cognitive Systems

Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering

Joint Cognitive Systems

Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However, this interaction has not always been efficient or easy and has at times turned fairly hazardous. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) seeks to improve this situation by the careful study of human/machine interaction as the meaningful behavior of a unified system. Written by pioneers in the development of CSE, Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering offers a principled approach to studying human work with complex technology. The authors use a top-down, functional approach and emphasize a proactive (coping) perspective on work that overcomes the limitations of the structural human information processing view. They describe a conceptual framework for analysis with concrete theories and methods for joint system modeling that can be applied across the spectrum of single human/machine systems, social/technical systems, and whole organizations. The book explores both current and potential applications of CSE illustrated by examples. Understanding the complexities and functions of the human/machine interaction is critical to designing safe, highly functional, and efficient technological systems. This is a critical reference for students, designers, and engineers in a wide variety of disciplines.

Cognitive Systems Engineering

An Integrative Living Laboratory Framework

Cognitive Systems Engineering

This book provides a framework for integrating complex systems that are problem-centric, human-centered, and provides an interdisciplinary, multi-methodological purview of multiple perspectives surrounding the human factors/human actors within living ecosystems. This book will provide useful theoretical and practical information to human factors, human-computer interaction, cognitive systems engineering personnel who are currently engaged in human-centered design or other applied aspects of modeling, simulation, and design that requires joint understanding of theory and practice.

Cognitive Systems Engineering

The Future for a Changing World

Cognitive Systems Engineering

This volume provides an exceptional perspective on the nature, evolution, contributions and future of the field of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). It is a resource to support both the teaching and practice of CSE. It accomplishes this through its organization into two complementary approaches to the topic. The first is an historical perspective: In the retrospections of leaders of the field, what have been the seminal achievements of cognitive human factors? What are the "lessons learned" that became foundational to CSE, and how did that foundation evolve into a broader systems view of cognitive work? The second perspective is both pedagogical and future-looking: What are the major conceptual issues that have to be addressed by CSE and how can a new generation of researchers be prepared to further advance CSE? Topics include studies of expertise, cognitive work analysis, cognitive task analysis, human performance, system design, cognitive modeling, decision making, human-computer interaction, trust in automation, teamwork and ecological interface design. A thematic focus will be on systems-level analysis, and such notions as resilience engineering and systems-level measurement. The book features broad coverage of many of the domains to which CSE is being applied, among them industrial process control, health care, decision aiding and aviation human factors. The book’s contributions are provided by an extraordinary group of leaders and pathfinders in applied psychology, cognitive science, systems analysis and system design. In combination these chapters present invaluable insights, experiences and continuing uncertainties on the subject of the field of CSE, and in doing so honor the career and achievements of Professor David D. Woods of Ohio State University.

Cognitive Systems Engineering in Health Care

Cognitive Systems Engineering in Health Care

Cognitive systems engineering has been widely and successfully applied in the design of safety critical systems such as nuclear power, aviation, and military command-and-control. More recently, these methods are being applied to the design of health and medical systems in order to improve health care quality, reduce errors and adverse events, and improve efficiencies. Cognitive Systems Engineering in Health Care provides an overview of cognitive systems engineering principles in the context of health care. It contains state-of-the-art examples of cognitive systems applications that can be adapted by health care practitioners interested in systematic engineering approaches to systems improvement. The book highlights current cognitive engineering-oriented research, analyses, and applications in settings such as cardiac surgery, obstetrics, and emergency medicine. It focuses on the impact cognitive engineering analyses can have in supporting communication and coordination with health care teams. The text then demonstrates the use of cognitive engineering methods to inform the design of information technology. It then details the systematic adaptation and application of specific cognitive engineering methods in the medical domain. The book concludes with examples of how in-depth cognitive engineering analyses can lead to demonstrated improvements in health care environments. Through a series of sample studies, the book gives you a deeper understanding of how cognitive engineering approaches might be applied in the health care domain. You’ll see common themes that underline the complexity of the health care domain and this insight can build a deep respect for the expertise of the practitioners who work in it. By identifying the abstractions that hold constant in this domain, you can build solutions for that will evolve to handle new applications, challenges, and approaches.

Joint Cognitive Systems

Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering

Joint Cognitive Systems

Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new technology and more powerful automation change our work? Research in Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) looks at the intersection of people, technology, and work. What it has found is not stories of simplification through more automation, but stories of complexity and adaptation. When work changed through new technology, practitioners had to cope with new complexities and tighter constraints. They adapted their strategies and the artifacts to work around difficulties and accomplish their goals as responsible agents. The surprise was that new powers had transformed work, creating new roles, new decisions, and new vulnerabilities. Ironically, more autonomous machines have created the requirement for more sophisticated forms of coordination across people, and across people and machines, to adapt to new demands and pressures. This book synthesizes these emergent Patterns though stories about coordination and mis-coordination, resilience and brittleness, affordance and clumsiness in a variety of settings, from a hospital intensive care unit, to a nuclear power control room, to a space shuttle control center. The stories reveal how new demands make work difficult, how people at work adapt but get trapped by complexity, and how people at a distance from work oversimplify their perceptions of the complexities, squeezing practitioners. The authors explore how CSE observes at the intersection of people, technology, and work, how CSE abstracts patterns behind the surface details and wide variations, and how CSE discovers promising new directions to help people cope with complexities. The stories of CSE show that one key to well-adapted work is the ability to be prepared to be surprised. Are you ready?

Cognitive Systems Engineering for User-computer Interface Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation

Cognitive Systems Engineering for User-computer Interface Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation

This volume seeks to answer the question: "Can findings from cognitive science enhance the user-computer interaction process?" In so doing, it recognizes that user-computer interfaces (UCIs) are often essential parts of an information or decision support system -- and often critical components of software-intensive systems of all kinds. From the outset, the authors note that the design, prototyping, and evaluation of user-computer interfaces are part of larger systems and are therefore ideally designed, developed, and evaluated as part of a larger design and developmental process or "life cycle." Thus, this book describes the process by which functional, nonfunctional, or display-oriented requirements are converted first into prototypes and then into working systems. While the process may at times seem almost mysterious, there is in fact a methodology that drives the process -- a methodology that is defined in terms of an adaptive life cycle. There are a number of steps or phases that comprise the standard life cycle, as well as methods, tools and techniques that permit each step to be taken. Describing the effort to implement this process to enhance user-computer interaction, this book presents a methodological approach that seeks to identify and apply findings from cognitive science to the design, prototyping, and evaluation of user-computer interfaces.

Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications

Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications

“...a much-needed handbook with contributions from well-chosen practitioners. A primary accomplishment is to provide guidance for those involved in modeling and simulation in support of Systems of Systems development, more particularly guidance that draws on well-conceived academic research to define concepts and terms, that identifies primary challenges for developers, and that suggests fruitful approaches grounded in theory and successful examples.” Paul Davis, The RAND Corporation Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the underlying theory, methods, and solutions in modeling and simulation support for system of systems engineering. Highlighting plentiful multidisciplinary applications of modeling and simulation, the book uniquely addresses the criteria and challenges found within the field. Beginning with a foundation of concepts, terms, and categories, a theoretical and generalized approach to system of systems engineering is introduced, and real-world applications via case studies and examples are presented. A unified approach is maintained in an effort to understand the complexity of a single system as well as the context among other proximate systems. In addition, the book features: Cutting edge coverage of modeling and simulation within the field of system of systems, including transportation, system health management, space mission analysis, systems engineering methodology, and energy State-of-the-art advances within multiple domains to instantiate theoretic insights, applicable methods, and lessons learned from real-world applications of modeling and simulation The challenges of system of systems engineering using a systematic and holistic approach Key concepts, terms, and activities to provide a comprehensive, unified, and concise representation of the field A collection of chapters written by over 40 recognized international experts from academia, government, and industry A research agenda derived from the contribution of experts that guides scholars and researchers towards open questions Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications is an ideal reference and resource for academics and practitioners in operations research, engineering, statistics, mathematics, modeling and simulation, and computer science. The book is also an excellent course book for graduate and PhD-level courses in modeling and simulation, engineering, and computer science.

Stories of Modern Technology Failures and Cognitive Engineering Successes

Stories of Modern Technology Failures and Cognitive Engineering Successes

A woman is operated on while she's awake... A plane runs out of gas while circling an airport for 30 minutes... A passenger liner is mistaken for an enemy fighter and shot down... A company invests in a new system that will cost them money... What do these failure have in common? How can we prevent them from happening again? Offering a critical perspective on problems with human-technical systems, Stories of Modern Technology Failures and Cognitive Engineering Successes explores the significant efforts of those who have made a positive difference. The book analyzes a variety of cognitive engineering applications, including training, design, military, transportation, communications, medicine, and emergency response in the nuclear industry. Real world examples include— Designing a military training program that improved the detection rates of land mines Redesigning a monitor to help anesthesiologists predict dosages more effectively Implementing new protocols to improve the workflow and safety of a nuclear power plant The book’s focus on cognitive engineering solutions emphasizes methodology such as knowledge elicitation, laboratory studies, naturalistic observation, usability, and modeling. It addresses highly complex systems as well as traditional human-machine interfaces. This book demonstrates how cognitive engineers— Identify and address cognitive problems Develop, test, and implement solutions Consider social, cultural, political, and economic factors Develop criteria to measure the success of a solution

Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

“Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems” discusses key strategies for success in the changing manufacturing environment. Changes can often be anticipated but some go beyond the design range, requiring innovative change enablers and adaptation mechanisms. The book presents the new concept of Changeability as an umbrella framework that encompasses paradigms such as agility, adaptability, flexibility and reconfigurability. It provides the definitions and classification of key terms in this new field, and emphasizes the required physical/hard and logical/soft change enablers. The book presents cutting edge technologies and the latest research, as well as future directions to help manufacturers stay competitive. It contains original contributions and results from senior international experts, together with industrial applications. The book serves as a comprehensive reference for professional engineers, managers, and academics in manufacturing, industrial and mechanical engineering.